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  • ASTM E 1391 : 2003 : R2008

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Standard Guide for Collection, Storage, Characterization, and Manipulation of Sediments for Toxicological Testing and for Selection of Samplers Used to Collect Benthic Invertebrates

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  11-11-2014

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-02-2008

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    CONTAINED IN VOL. 11.06, 2017 Defines procedures for obtaining, storing, characterizing, and manipulating marine, estuarine, and freshwater sediments, for use in laboratory sediment toxicity evaluations and describes samplers that can be used to collect sediment and benthic invertebrates.

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    1.1 This guide covers procedures for obtaining, storing, characterizing, and manipulating marine, estuarine, and freshwater sediments, for use in laboratory sediment toxicity evaluations and describes samplers that can be used to collect sediment and benthic invertebrates (Annex A1). This standard is not meant to provide detailed guidance for all aspects of sediment assessments, such as chemical analyses or monitoring, geophysical characterization, or extractable phase and fractionation analyses. However, some of this information might have applications for some of these activities. A variety of methods are reviewed in this guide. A statement on the consensus approach then follows this review of the methods. This consensus approach has been included in order to foster consistency among studies. It is anticipated that recommended methods and this guide will be updated routinely to reflect progress in our understanding of sediments and how to best study them. This version of the standard is based primarily on a document developed by USEPA (2001 (1)) and by Environment Canada (1994 (2)) as well as an earlier version of this standard.

    1.2 Protecting sediment quality is an important part of restoring and maintaining the biological integrity of our natural resources as well as protecting aquatic life, wildlife, and human health. Sediment is an integral component of aquatic ecosystems, providing habitat, feeding, spawning, and rearing areas for many aquatic organisms (MacDonald and Ingersoll 2002 a, b (3) (4)). Sediment also serves as a reservoir for contaminants in sediment and therefore a potential source of contaminants to the water column, organisms, and ultimately human consumers of those organisms. These contaminants can arise from a number of sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and agricultural runoff, atmospheric deposition, and port operations.

    1.3 Contaminated sediment can cause lethal and sublethal effects in benthic (sediment-dwelling) and other sediment-associated organisms. In addition, natural and human disturbances can release contaminants to the overlying water, where pelagic (water column) organisms can be exposed. Sediment-associated contaminants can reduce or eliminate species of recreational, commercial, or ecological importance, either through direct effects or by affecting the food supply that sustainable populations require. Furthermore, some contaminants in sediment can bioaccumulate through the food chain and pose health risks to wildlife and human consumers even when sediment-dwelling organisms are not themselves impacted (Test Method E 1706).

    1.4 There are several regulatory guidance documents concerned with sediment collection and characterization procedures that might be important for individuals performing federal or state agency-related work. Discussion of some of the principles and current thoughts on these approaches can be found in Dickson, et al. Ingersoll et al. (1997 (5)), and Wenning and Ingersoll (2002 (6)).

    1.5 This guide is arranged as follows:

    Scope 1
    Referenced Documents 2
    Terminology 3
    Summary of Guide 4
    Significance and Use 5
    Interferences 6
    Apparatus 7
    Safety Hazards 8
    Sediment Monitoring and Assessment Plans 9
    Collection of Whole Sediment Samples10
    Field Sample Processing, Transport, and Storage of Sediments 11
    Sample Manipulations12
    Collection of Interstitial Water13
    Physico-chemical Characterization of Sediment Samples14
    Quality Assurance15
    Description of Samplers Used to Collect Sediment or Benthic InvertebratesAnnex A1

    1.6 Field-collected sediments might contain potentially toxic materials and should thus be treated with caution to minimize occupational exposure to workers. Worker safety must also be considered when working with spiked sediments containing various organic, inorganic, or radiolabeled contaminants, or some combination thereof. Careful consideration should be given to those chemicals that might biodegrade, volatilize, oxidize, or photolyze during the exposure.

    1.7 The values stated in either SI or inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

    1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use. Specific hazards statements are given in Section 8.

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    Committee E 50
    Development Note Supersedes ASTM D 4343, ASTM D 4344, ASTM D 4345 and ASTM D 4347. (10/2003) Supersedes ASTM D 4557, ASTM D 4558, ASTM E 1468, ASTM E 1469, ASTM D 4342, ASTM D 4348, ASTM D 4387, ASTM D 4401, ASTM D 4407 and ASTM D 4556. (11/2003) Supersedes ASTM D 4346. (07/2004)
    Document Type Guide
    Product Note Reconfirmed 2008
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM E 1525 : 2002 : R2014 Standard Guide for Designing Biological Tests with Sediments
    ASTM D 6232 : 2016 Standard Guide for Selection of Sampling Equipment for Waste and Contaminated Media Data Collection Activities
    ASTM E 3164 : 2018 Standard Guide for Sediment Corrective Action – Monitoring
    ASTM E 724 : 1998 : R2012 Standard Guide for Conducting Static Acute Toxicity Tests Starting with Embryos of Four Species of Saltwater Bivalve Molluscs
    ASTM E 1706 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Toxicity of Sediment-Associated Contaminants with Freshwater Invertebrates
    ASTM E 1611 : 2000 : R2013 Standard Guide for Conducting Sediment Toxicity Tests with Polychaetous Annelids
    ASTM E 1849 : 1996 : R2013 Standard Guide for Fish and Wildlife Incident Monitoring and Reporting (Withdrawn 2022)
    ASTM E 2020 : 2016 Standard Guide for Data and Information Options for Conducting an Ecological Risk Assessment at Contaminated Sites
    ASTM E 1841 : 2004 : R2012 Standard Guide for Conducting Renewal Phytotoxicity Tests With Freshwater Emergent Macrophytes (Withdrawn 2021)
    ASTM E 3163 : 2018 Standard Guide for Selection and Application of Analytical Methods and Procedures Used during Sediment Corrective Action
    ASTM E 2591 : 2007 : R2013 Standard Guide for Conducting Whole Sediment Toxicity Tests with Amphibians
    ASTM E 2455 : 2006 : R2013 Standard Guide for Conducting Laboratory Toxicity Tests with Freshwater Mussels (Withdrawn 2022)
    ASTM E 2590 : 2015 Standard Guide for Conducting Hazard Analysis-Critical Control Point (HACCP) Evaluations
    ASTM E 1367 : 2003 : R2014 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Toxicity of Sediment-Associated Contaminants with Estuarine and Marine Invertebrates
    ASTM E 2122 : 2002 : R2013 Standard Guide for Conducting In-situ Field Bioassays With Caged Bivalves (Withdrawn 2022)
    ASTM E 1563 : 1998 : R2012 Standard Guide for Conducting Static Acute Toxicity Tests with Echinoid Embryos
    ASTM E 1439 : 2012 : R2019 Standard Guide for Conducting the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX)
    ASTM E 1688 : 2010 : R2016 Standard Guide for Determination of the Bioaccumulation of Sediment-Associated Contaminants by Benthic Invertebrates

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 1129 : 2013 : REDLINE Standard Terminology Relating to Water
    ASTM D 1426 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Ammonia Nitrogen In Water
    IEEE/ASTM SI_10-2010 American National Standard for Metric Practice
    ASTM D 4387 : 2002 Standard Guide for Selecting Grab Sampling Devices for Collecitng Benthic Macroinvertebrates (Withdrawn 2003)
    ASTM D 1067 : 2016 : REDLINE Standard Test Methods for Acidity or Alkalinity of Water
    ASTM E 729 : 1996 Standard Guide for Conducting Acute Toxicity Tests on Test Materials with Fishes, Macroinvertebrates, and Amphibians
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