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  • AWS A2.4 : 2012

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    STANDARD SYMBOLS FOR WELDING, BRAZING, AND NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION

    Available format(s): 

    Superseded date:  16-06-2021

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  01-01-2012

    Publisher:  American Welding Society

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Personnel
    Foreword
    List of Tables
    List of Figures
    1. General Requirements
    2. Normative References
    3. Terms and Definitions
    4. Basic Welding Symbols
    5. Joint Types
    6. General Provisions for Welding Symbols
    7. Groove Welds
    8. Fillet Welds
    9. Plug Welds
    10. Slot Welds
    11. Spot Welds
    12. Seam Welds
    13. Edge Welds
    14. Stud Welds
    15. Surfacing Welds
    16. Brazing Symbols
    17. Nondestructive Examination Symbols
    Annex A (Normative) - Tables
    Annex B (Informative) - Design of Standard Symbols
            (U.S. Customary Units)
    Annex C (Informative) - Design of Standard Symbols (SI Units)
    Annex D (Informative) - Commentary on AWS A2.4, Standard
            Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and Nondestructive
            Examination
    Annex E (Informative) - Welding Symbol Chart
    Annex F (Informative) - ISO 2553 Welding Symbols
    Annex G (Informative) - Informative References
    Annex H (Informative) - Guidelines for the Preparation
            of Technical Inquiries
    List of AWS Documents on Definitions and Symbols

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Defines a system for indicating welding, brazing, and nondestructive examination requirements. Also includes provisions for the graphical representation of welds, brazes, and nondestructive examination methods with conventions for specifying, at a minimum, the location and extent of their application.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee A2
    Development Note Also available as a combo set along with AWS A2.1 DC & WC. (03/2012) SPANISH Version of 2012 Edition is also available, See AWS A2.4 SPANISH. (04/2012)
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher American Welding Society
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AWS D14.4/D14.4M : 2012 SPECIFICATION FOR THE DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS IN MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
    AWS C3.6M/C3.6 : 2016 SPECIFICATION FOR FURNACE BRAZING
    MIL DTL 901 : E SHOCK TESTS, H.I. (HIGH-IMPACT) SHIPBOARD MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT, AND SYSTEMS, REQUIREMENTS FOR
    AWS B1.11M/B1.11 : 2015 GUIDE FOR THE VISUAL EXAMINATION OF WELDS
    AWS D8.14M : 2008 SPECIFICATION FOR AUTOMOTIVE WELD QUALITY - ARC WELDING OF ALUMINUM
    API 16D : 2004 : R2013 SPECIFICATION FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR DRILLING WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR DIVERTER EQUIPMENT
    AWS D18.3/D18.3M : 2015 SPECIFICATION FOR WELDING OF TANKS, VESSELS & OTHER EQUIPMENT IN SANITARY (HYGIENIC) APPLICATIONS
    MIL C 70741 : 0 CONTAINER, METAL, PA117
    MIL STD 1688 : A FABRICATION, WELDING, AND INSPECTION OF HY-80/100 SUBMARINE APPLICATIONS
    MIL W 8604 : A WELDING, FUSION, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, PROCESSING AND PERFORMANCE OF
    AWS WHC4.09 : 0 MATERIALS AND APPLICATION - PART 1 - WELDING HANDBOOK, 9TH EDITION, VOLUME 4 - CHAPTER 9: MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR WELDING
    MIL A 52679 : B ANCHOR, SURFACING MEMBRANE: 12 INCH
    I.S. EN ISO 2553:2013 WELDING AND ALLIED PROCESSES - SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION ON DRAWINGS - WELDED JOINTS (ISO 2553:2013)
    AWS WIT-T : 2008 WELDING INSPECTION TECHNOLOGY
    CSA W59.2 : 1991 : R2013 WELDED ALUMINUM CONSTRUCTION
    BS EN ISO 2553:2013 Welding and allied processes. Symbolic representation on drawings. Welded joints
    MIL STD 278 : F WELDING AND CASTING STANDARD
    AWWA D100 : 2011 WELDED CARBON STEEL TANKS FOR WATER STORAGE
    API 16D RUSSIAN : 2004 SPECIFICATION FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR DRILLING WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR DIVERTER EQUIPMENT
    NBR 14842 : 2015 ERRATA 1 2015 WELDING - REQUIREMENTS FOR QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF INSPECTORS FOR SECTOR PETROLEUM AND GAS, PETROCHEMICAL, FERTILIZER, SHIPBUILDING AND THERMOELECTRIC (EXCEPT NUCLEAR)
    AWS B1.10M/B1.10 : 2016 GUIDE FOR THE NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF WELDS
    ASTM D 7447 : 2008 Standard Practice for Symbolizing Adhesive Applications
    CSA W47.2 : 2011 CERTIFICATION OF COMPANIES FOR FUSION WELDING OF ALUMINUM
    AWS G2.1M/G2.1 : 2002 GUIDE FOR THE JOINING OF WROUGHT NICKEL-BASED ALLOYS
    AISC 204 : 2008 AISC CERTIFICATION PROGRAM FOR BRIDGE AND HIGHWAY METAL COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS
    MIL STD 1689 : A FABRICATION, WELDING AND INSPECTION OF SHIPS STRUCTURE
    MIL STD 1877 : B BRAZING, NICKEL, HIGH TEMPERATURE VACUUM
    MIL B 007883 : C BRAZING OF STEELS, COPPER, COPPER ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, ALUMINUM AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS
    ISO 2553:2013 Welding and allied processes Symbolic representation on drawings Welded joints
    AWS EG3.0 : 1996 TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PERSONNEL: LEVEL 2 - ADVANCEDWELDER, GUIDE FOR THE
    MIL C 42066 : A CARRIER, LITTER, WHEELED
    MIL STD 1947 : 0 ULTRASONIC WELDING OF ALUMINUM AND ALUMINUM ALLOY MATERIALS
    AWS D1.1/D1.1M : 2015 STRUCTURAL WELDING CODE-STEEL
    MIL S 51028 : B SAMPLING AND GAGING KIT, PETROLEUM: PORTABLE
    AWS C3.7 : 1999 SPECIFICATION FOR ALUMINUM BRAZING
    MIL HDBK 1941 : 0 METAL-ARC WELDING OF HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR
    ANSI/AWWA D107-16 ERR 1(CSV) COMPOSITE ELEVATED TANKS FOR WATER STORAGE
    NASA PRC 0011 : 2004 PROCESS SPECIFICATION FOR THE SEMI-AUTOMATIC AND MACHINE STUD WELDING OF NON FLIGHT HARDWARE
    ASTM D 7447 : 2008 : R2014 Standard Practice for Symbolizing Adhesive Applications
    MIL W 13855 : D WEAPONS, SMALL ARMS AND AIRCRAFT ARMAMENT SUBSYSTEMS, GENERAL SPECIFICATION FOR
    DOD STD 100 : C NOTICE 6 ENGINEERING DRAWING PRACTICES
    MIL DTL 13931 : J CANNON: GENERAL SPECIFICATION FOR
    AWS D14.7/D14.7M : 2005 RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR SURFACING AND RECONDITIONING OF INDUSTRIAL MILL ROLLS
    AWS C1.5 : 2015 SPECIFICATION FOR THE QUALIFICATION OF RESISTANCE WELDING TECHNICIANS
    AWS B2.1/B2.1M : 2014 SPECIFICATION FOR WELDING PROCEDURE AND PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION
    CSA W59.2 : 1991 : R2008 WELDED ALUMINUM CONSTRUCTION
    AISC 201 : 2006 AISC CERTIFICATION PROGRAM FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL FABRICATORS
    CSA W59.2 : 1991(R2008) WELDED ALUMINUM CONSTRUCTION
    AWS D14.5/D14.5M : 2009 SPECIFICATION FOR WELDING OF PRESSES AND PRESS COMPONENTS
    17/30353044 DC : 0 BS EN ISO 2553 - WELDING AND ALLIED PROCESSES - SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION ON DRAWINGS - WELDED JOINTS
    NASA PRC 0008 : 2004 PROCESS SPECIFICATION FOR THE QUALIFICATION OF MANUAL ARC WELDERS
    MIL S 13119 : E SPREADER, SLING, PLATE TYPE, NONADJUSTABLE
    MIL STD 1261 : C ARC WELDING PROCEDURES FOR CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS
    ASME B96.1 : 1999 WELDED ALUMINUM-ALLOY STORAGE TANKS
    PIP VESAC001 : 2016 AIR-COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION (SUPPLEMENT TO API STD 661, 7TH EDITION)
    CSA W59.2 : 1991 WELDED ALUMINUM CONSTRUCTION
    PIP VESLP001 : 2012 LOW-PRESSURE, WELDED VESSEL SPECIFICATION
    DOD STD 2185 : 0 REQUIREMENTS FOR REPAIR AND STRAIGHTENING OF BRONZE NAVAL SHIP PROPELLERS
    MIL STD 370 : A VISUAL ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR INSPECTION OF ALUMINUM ALLOY WELDS
    AWS C7.3 : 2016 PROCESS SPECIFICATION FOR ELECTRON BEAM WELDING
    AWS C3.11M/C3.11 : 2011 SPECIFICATION FOR TORCH SOLDERING
    MIL DTL 32572 : 0 ANCHOR WINDLASS, ELECTRO-MECHANICAL, VERTICAL, TWO-SPEED AND VARIABLE-SPEED
    AWS D17.3/D17.3M : 2016 SPECIFICATION FOR FRICTION STIR WELDING OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS
    SAE AMS 2689 : 2016 FUSION WELDING TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS
    AWS BRH : 0 BRAZING HANDBOOK
    AWS C7.1M/C7.1 : 2013 RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR ELECTRON BEAM WELDING AND ALLIED PROCESSES
    ASTM E 2104 : 2015 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Radiographic Examination of Advanced Aero and Turbine Materials and Components
    AWS C3.7M/C3.7 : 2011 SPECIFICATION FOR ALUMINUM BRAZING
    MIL HDBK 21 : 0 HANDBOOK FOR WELDED JOINTS DESIGNS, ARMORED TANK TYPE
    MIL STD 1693 : A NOTICE 2 FABRICATION WELDING AND INSPECTION OF HYPERBARIC CHAMBERS AND OTHER CRITICAL LAND BASED STRUCTURES
    NBR 8800 : 2008 DESIGN OF STEEL AND COMPOSITE STRUCTURES FOR BUILDINGS
    ASME Y14.100M : 1998 ENGINEERING DRAWING PRACTICES
    AWS D1.9/D1.9M : 2015 STRUCTURAL WELDING CODE - TITANIUM
    MIL STD 372 : 0 WELDING, GAS METAL-ARC AND GAS TUNGSTEN-ARC, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, READILY WELDABLE FOR STRUCTURES, EXCLUDING ARMOR
    MIL STD 1881 : 0 BRAZING SILVER, GENERAL PROCESS FOR
    MIL STD 1185 : 0 WELDING, HIGH HARDNESS ARMOR
    MIL STD 1892 : 0 WELDING, ARC AND OXYFUEL GAS, PROCESS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR
    AWS D1.1/D1.1M PORTUGUESE : 2010 STRUCTURAL WELDING CODE - STEEL
    API 16D CHINESE : 2004 SPECIFICATION FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR DRILLING WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR DIVERTER EQUIPMENT
    MIL STD 453 : C INSPECTION, RADIOGRAPHIC
    API 577 : 2013 WELDING PROCESSES, INSPECTION, AND METALLURGY
    MIL R 48628 : A RACK, STORAGE, SMALL ARMS: M14
    MIL STD 40008 : 0 PNEUMATIC PRESSURE TESTING PARTS WITH PERMANENT JOINTS - WELDS, BRAZES & RIVETS
    W59-13 Welded steel construction (metal arc welding)
    AWS D14.3/D14.3M : 2010 SPECIFICATION FOR WELDING EARTHMOVING, CONSTRUCTION, AND AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT
    AWS D14.9/D14.9M : 2013 SPECIFICATION FOR THE WELDING OF HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS
    API 16D:2004 SPECIFICATION FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR DRILLING WELL CONTROL EQUIPMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR DIVERTER EQUIPMENT
    AWS D14.2 : 1993 SPECIFICATION FOR METAL CUTTING MACHINE TOOL WELDMENTS
    AWS D8.8M : 2014 SPECIFICATION FOR AUTOMOTIVE WELD QUALITY - ARC WELDING OF STEEL
    SAE AMS 2685 : 2017 WELDING, TUNGSTEN ARC, INERT GAS, (GTAW METHOD)
    NASA PRC 0009 : 2004 PROCESS SPECIFICATION FOR THE RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING OF BATTERY AND ELECTRONIC ASSEMBLIES
    CSA W55.3:2008 CERTIFICATION OF COMPANIES FOR RESISTANCE WELDING OF STEEL AND ALUMINUM
    AWS D15.1/D15.1M : 2012 RAILROAD WELDING SPECIFICATION FOR CARS AND LOCOMOTIVES
    CSA W55.3 : 2008 : R2013 CERTIFICATION OF COMPANIES FOR RESISTANCE WELDING OF STEEL AND ALUMINUM
    PIP VESV1002 : 2012 DESIGN AND FABRICATION SPECIFICATION FOR VESSELS ASME CODE SECTION 8, DIVISIONS 1 AND 2
    W55.3-08 (R2018) Certification of companies for resistance welding of steel and aluminum
    API 577 CHINESE : 2013 WELDING PROCESSES, INSPECTION AND METALLURGY
    ASME Y14.100 : 2017 ENGINEERING DRAWING PRACTICES - ENGINEERING DRAWING AND RELATED DOCUMENTATION PRACTICES
    UNI EN ISO 2553 : 2014 WELDING AND ALLIED PROCESSES - SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION ON DRAWINGS - WELDED JOINTS
    AWS B5.17 : 2014 SPECIFICATION FOR THE QUALIFICATION OF WELDING FABRICATORS
    AWS WHC4.06 : 0 MATERIALS AND APPLICATION - PART 1 - WELDING HANDBOOK, 9TH EDITION, VOLUME 4 - CHAPTER 6: CLAD AND DISSIMILAR METALS
    AWS D17.2/D17.2M : 2013 SPECIFICATION FOR RESISTANCE WELDING FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS
    AWS C3.4 : 1999 SPECIFICATION FOR TORCH BRAZING
    AWS D10.7M/D10.7 : 2008 GUIDE FOR THE GAS SHIELDED ARC WELDING OF ALUMINUM AND ALUMINUM ALLOY PIPE
    AWS B5.5 : 2011 SPECIFICATION FOR THE QUALIFICATION OF WELDING EDUCATORS
    AWS C3.6 : 1999 SPECIFICATION FOR FURNACE BRAZING
    AWS D8.14M/D8.14 : 2000 SPECIFICATION FOR AUTOMOTIVE AND LIGHT TRUCK COMPONENTS WELD QUALITY - ALUMINIUM ARC WELDING
    AWS D14.5 : 1997 SPECIFICATION FOR WELDING OF PRESSES AND PRESS COMPONENTS
    AWS D10.14M/D10.14 : 2010 GUIDE FOR MULTIPASS ORBITAL MACHINE PIPE GROOVE WELDING
    AWS D1.2/D1.2M : 2014 STRUCTURAL WELDING CODE - ALUMINUM
    AWS D15.2/D15.2M : 2013 RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR THE WELDING OF RAILS AND RELATED RAIL COMPONENTS FOR USE BY RAIL VEHICLES
    AWS D14.1/D14.1M : 2005 SPECIFICATION FOR WELDING OF INDUSTRIAL AND MILL CRANES AND OTHER MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT
    AWS D17.1 : 2001 SPECIFICATION FOR FUSION WELDING FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS
    AWS QC19 : 2002 ERRATA 2009 SPECIFICATION FOR AWS CERTIFICATION OF ROBOTIC ARC WELDING PERSONNEL
    AWS C3.5 : 1999 SPECIFICATION FOR INDUCTION BRAZING
    AWS D1.4/D1.4M : 2011 STRUCTURAL WELDING CODE - REINFORCING STEEL
    AWS C3.4M/C3.4 : 2016 SPECIFICATION FOR TORCH BRAZING
    AWS B4.0M : 2000 STANDARD METHODS FOR MECHANICAL TESTING OF WELDS
    AWS GWF : 1998 GUIDE FOR SETTING UP A WELDER TRAINING FACILITY
    AWS B4.0 : 2016 STANDARD METHODS FOR MECHANICAL TESTING OF WELDS
    AWS D1.5M/D1.5 : 2015 BRIDGE WELDING CODE
    AWS PRGVT : 1999 PRACTICAL REFERENCE GUIDE FOR WELDING INSPECTION MANAGEMENT: VISUAL INSPECTION OF PRESSURE VESSELS AND PRESSURE PIPING
    AWS CMWS : 2005 CERTIFIED WELDING SUPERVISOR MANUAL FOR QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT
    AWS DPW : 1999 THE DESIGN AND PLANNING MANUAL FOR COST-EFFECTIVE WELDING
    AWS A9.5 : 2013 GUIDE FOR VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION IN COMPUTATION WELD MECHANICS
    AWS D3.6M : 2010 UNDERWATER WELDING CODE
    AWS C6.2/C6.2M : 2006 SPECIFICATION FOR FRICTION WELDING OF METALS
    AWS D3.9 : 2010 SPECIFICATION FOR CLASSIFICATION OF WELD-THROUGH PAINT PRIMERS
    AWS D14.3 : 1994 WELDING EARTHMOVING AND CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT, SPECIFICATION FOR,
    AWS C3.5M/C3.5 : 2016 SPECIFICATION FOR INDUCTION BRAZING
    AWS D5.2 : 1984 WELDED STEEL ELEVATED TANKS, STANDPIPES, AND RESERVOIRS FOR WATER STORAGE, STANDARD FOR,
    AWS EG4.0 : 1996 GUIDE FOR THE TRAINING AND QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PERSONNEL: LEVEL 3, EXPERT WELDER
    AWS C3.9M/C3.9 : 2009 SPECIFICATION FOR RESISTANCE BRAZING
    AWS B1.10 : 1999 GUIDE FOR THE NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF WELDS
    AWS D1.6 : 1999 ERRATA 1999 STRUCTURAL WELDING CODE - STAINLESS STEEL
    AWS D14.1 : 1997 SPECIFICATION FOR WELDING INDUSTRIAL AND MILL CRANES AND OTHER MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT
    AWWA C231 : 2017 FIELD WELDING OF STAINLESS-STEEL WATER PIPE
    AISC 206 : 2013 AISC CERTIFICATION PROGRAM FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL ERECTORS - STANDARD FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL ERECTORS
    ASTM E 2698 : 2010 Standard Practice for Radiological Examination Using Digital Detector Arrays
    NASA KSC STD 152-2 : 1992 GRAPHIC SYMBOLS FOR DRAWINGS - PART 2: GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT STANDARD FOR
    ASTM D 7447 : 2008 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Symbolizing Adhesive Applications
    ASTM E 1742/E1742M : 2018 : REDLINE Standard Practice for Radiographic Examination
    MIL DTL 71172 : B CYLINDER, RECUPERATOR, RECOIL, M119A1/A2 HOWITZER LIGHT, TOWED: 105 MM
    11/30050625 DC : 0 BS EN ISO 2553 - WELDING AND ALLIED PROCESSES - SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION ON DRAWINGS - WELDED, BRAZED AND SOLDERED JOINTS
    DIN EN ISO 2553:2014-04 WELDING AND ALLIED PROCESSES - SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION ON DRAWINGS - WELDED JOINTS (ISO 2553:2013)
    EN ISO 2553:2013 WELDING AND ALLIED PROCESSES - SYMBOLIC REPRESENTATION ON DRAWINGS - WELDED JOINTS (ISO 2553:2013)
    ASME AG-1 : 2019 CODE ON NUCLEAR AIR AND GAS TREATMENT
    ASME AG 1 : 2012 CODE ON NUCLEAR AIR AND GAS TREATMENT
    UNE-EN ISO 2553:2014 Welding and allied processes - Symbolic representation on drawings - Welded joints (ISO 2553:2013)
    NASA MSFC SPEC 504 : 1990 WELDING, ALUMINIUM ALLOYS
    NASA MSFC SPEC 3679 : 2012 PROCESS SPECIFICATION - WELDING AEROSPACE HARDWARE
    NASA PRC 0001 : 2012 PROCESS SPECIFICATION FOR THE MANUAL ARC WELDING OF ALUMINUM ALLOY HARDWARE
    NASA PRC 0015 : 2016 PROCESS SPECIFICATION FOR AUTOMATIC AND MACHINE ARC WELDING OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOY HARDWARE
    NASA KSC STD Z 0004 : 2002 STRUCTURAL DESIGN, STANDARD FOR
    NASA KSC GP 435 VOL 2 : 1993 ENGINEERING DRAWING PRACTICES - VOLUME 2: FACILITIES
    NASA MSFC SPEC 560 : 1988 THE FUSION WELDING OF STEEL, CORROSION AND HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS
    NASA MSFC SPEC 766 : 1982 FUSION WELDING TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS
    NASA STD 5006 : 2015 GENERAL FUSION WELDING REQUIREMENTS FOR AEROSPACE MATERIALS
    NASA KSC STD 152-1 : 1992 GRAPHIC SYMBOLS FOR DRAWINGS - PART 1: FACILITIES STANDARD FOR
    NASA PRC 0010 : 2012 PROCESS SPECIFICATION FOR AUTOMATIC AND MACHINE ARC WELDING OF STEEL AND NICKEL ALLOY HARDWARE
    NASA PRC 0005 : 2012 PROCESS SPECIFICATION FOR THE MANUAL ARC WELDING OF CARBON STEEL AND NICKEL ALLOY HARDWARE
    NASA PRC 0002 : 2012 PROCESS SPECIFICATION FOR THE MANUAL ARC WELDING OF TITANIUM ALLOY HARDWARE
    NASA PRC 0014 : 2012 PROCESS SPECIFICATION FOR FRICTION STIR WELDING
    MIL HDBK 115 : C U.S. ARMY REVERSE ENGINEERING HANDBOOK (GUIDELINES AND PROCEDURES)
    ASHRAE HDBK REFRIGERATION : 2014 ASHRAE HANDBOOK - REFRIGERATION

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AWS A1.1 : 2016 METRIC PRACTICE GUIDE FOR THE WELDING INDUSTRY
    AWS A5.30/A5.30M : 2007 SPECIFICATION FOR CONSUMABLE INSERTS
    AWS B1.10M/B1.10 : 2016 GUIDE FOR THE NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF WELDS
    AWS A3.0M/A3.0 : 2010 STANDARD WELDING TERMS AND DEFINITIONS INCLUDING TERMS FOR ADHESIVE BONDING, BRAZING, SOLDERING, THERMAL CUTTING, AND THERMAL SPRAYING
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