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  • AS 1697-1981

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Gas transmission and distribution systems (known as the SAA Gas Pipeline Code)

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-01-1981

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 1697-1981 GAS TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS KNOWN AS THE GAS PIPELINE CODE
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - SECTION 1. SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
    7 - 1.1 SCOPE.
    7 - 1.2 SAFETY.
    7 - 1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF GAS TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS.
    9 - 1.4 NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS.
    12 - 1.5 STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS.
    12 - 1.6 INTERPRETATION.
    13 - SECTION 2. MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
    13 - 2.1 GENERAL.
    13 - 2.2 QUALIFICATION CATEGORIES OF MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
    13 - 2.3 QUALIFYINGPROCEDURES- GENERAL.
    13 - 2.4 QUALIFYING PROCEDURES FOR IDENTIFIED USED STEEL PIPE COMPLYING WITH A SPECIFICATION COVERED BY THIS STANDARD
    13 - 2.5 QUALIFYING PROCEDURES FOR NEW OR USED STEEL PIPE NOT COMPLYING WITH A SPECIFICATION COVERED BY THIS STANDARD.
    15 - 2.6 PIPE SPECIFICATIONS.
    15 - 2.7 FRACTURE TOUGHNESS.
    17 - 2.8 ACCESSORIES AND FITTINGS.
    18 - 2.9 EXTERNAL PROTECTIVE COATING.
    18 - 2.10 INTERNAL PROTECTIVE LINING.
    18 - 2.11 CAST AND DUCTILE (NODULAR OR SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE) IRON
    18 - 2.12 COPPER AND COPPER ALLOY.
    18 - 2.13 PLASTICS.
    18 - 2.14 JOINTING MATERIALS.
    18 - 2.15 MATERIALS FOR INSULATING JOINTS.
    19 - 2.16 RESTRICTIONS ON USE OF MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
    19 - 2.17 GALVANIC ANODES.
    20 - SECTION 3. DESIGN
    20 - 3.1 DESIGN OF STEEL PIPELINES AND MAINS.
    29 - 3.2 CONTROL AND LIMITING OF GAS PRESSURE.
    31 - 3.3 PITS, VAULTS AND KIOSKS.
    32 - 3.4 EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL CORROSION- DIVISION 2 SYSTEMS
    34 - 3.5 INSTRUMENT, CONTROL AND SAMPLING PIPING.
    34 - 3.6 VALVES.
    35 - 3.7 COMPRESSOR STATIONS.
    37 - SECTION 4. FABRICATION DETAILS
    37 - 4.1 GENERAL.
    37 - 4.2 FITTINGS AND COMPONENTS OTHER THAN STANDARD.
    37 - 4.3 REINFORCEMENT OF WELDED BRANCH CONNECTIONS
    39 - 4.4 REINFORCEMENT OF MULTIPLE OPENINGS.
    39 - 4.5 EXTRUDED OUTLETS.
    40 - 4.6 EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY.
    40 - 4.7 COMBINED STRESS CALCULATIONS.
    41 - 4.8 SUPPORTS AND ANCHORAGE FOR EXPOSED PIPING.
    41 - 4.9 ANCHORAGE FOR BURIED PIPE.
    42 - SECTION 5. WELDING
    42 - 5.1 GENERAL.
    42 - 5.2 SAFETY IN WELDING.
    42 - 5.3 WELDING EQUIPMENT.
    42 - 5.4 ELECTRODES, FLUXES, FILLER RODS AND GAS MIXTURES.
    43 - 5.5 PROHIBITION OF WELDING.
    43 - 5.6 DEFINITIONS AND TERMS.
    43 - 5.7 GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR WELDING.
    46 - 5.8 PREHEATING.
    50 - 5.9 POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT.
    50 - 5.10 SOUR GAS OPERATION.
    50 - 5.11 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE.
    53 - 5.12 QUALIFICATION TESTING OF WELDED JOINTS.
    58 - 5.13 WELDER QUALIFICATION.
    63 - 5.14 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF PRODUCTION WELDS.
    63 - 5.15 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS.
    64 - 5.16 STANDARDS OF ACCEPTABILITY FOR NON- DESTRUCTIVE TESTING.
    68 - 5.17 RECTIFICATION OF WELDS.
    69 - 5.18 WELDING OR CUTTING ON STEEL PIPELINES CONTAINING GAS.
    70 - 5.19 ATTACHMENT OF ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS.
    73 - SECTION 6. CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION
    73 - 6.1 GENERAL.
    73 - 6.2 INSTALLATION OF PIPELINES, MAINS AND SERVICES.
    75 - 6.3 SAFE WORKING WITH GAS.
    77 - SECTION 7. INSPECTION AND TESTING
    77 - 7.1 EXTENT OF INSPECTION AND TESTING.
    77 - 7.2 INSPECTION AND INSPECTORS.
    77 - 7.3 TESTING AFTER CONSTRUCTION.
    77 - 7.4 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF DIVISION 1 SYSTEMS.
    79 - 7.5 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF DIVISION 2 SYSTEMS.
    80 - 7.6 RECORDS.
    80 - 7.7 PRESSURE LIMITING AND PRESSURE-RELIEF DEVICES.
    81 - SECTION 8. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
    81 - 8.1 GENERAL
    81 - 8.2 MAINTENANCE OF PRESSURE-LIMITING AND PRESSURE-REGULATING STATIONS.
    81 - 8.3 PIT AND VAULT MAINTENANCE.
    81 - 8.4 PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTAL IGNITION.
    81 - 8.5 VALVE MAINTENANCE
    81 - 8.6 ABANDONING OF DISTRIBUTION OR TRANSMISSION FACILITY
    82 - 8.7 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE - DIVISION 1 SYSTEMS.
    84 - 8.8 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE- DIVISION 2 SYSTEMS.
    85 - 8.9 CORROSION-DIVISION 1 SYSTEMS.
    86 - SECTION 9. ODORIZING
    86 - 9.1 REQUIREMENT.
    86 - 9.2 SAMPLES AND RECORDS.
    87 - SECTION 10. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LP GAS) SYSTEMS
    87 - 10.1 DEFINITION.
    87 - 10.2 APPLICATION OF STANDARD.
    87 - 10.3 REQUIREMENTS SPECIFIC TO LP GAS.
    88 - SECTION 11. CHANGES IN MAXIMUM OPERATING PRESSURE OF EXISTING SYSTEMS
    88 - 11.1 GENERAL
    88 - 11.2 INCREASING THE MAXIMUM OPERATING PRESSURE.
    90 - SECTION 12. CORROSION MITIGATION -DIVISION 1 SYSTEMS
    90 - 12.1 GENERAL.
    90 - 12.2 QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL.
    90 - 12.3 RATE OF CORROSION.
    91 - 12.4 CORROSION MITIGATION METHODS.
    91 - 12.5 INTERNAL CORROSION MITIGATION.
    91 - 12.6 EXTERNAL CORROSION MITIGATION.
    93 - 12.7 INSTALLATION OF GALVANIC ANODES.
    93 - 12.8 TIMING OF APPLICATION OF CORROSION MITIGATION.
    93 - 12.9 INSPECTION FOR THE DETECTION OF CORROSION.
    94 - 12.10 CORROSION DEFECTS.
    94 - 12.11 RECORDS.
    95 - APPENDIX A - NOMINATED STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS (Clause 1.5.2)
    98 - APPENDIX B - REFERENCE STANDARDS (Clause 1.5.4)
    99 - APPENDIX C - FIGURES RELATING TO WELD REINFORCEMENT (Section 4)
    106 - APPENDIX D - FLEXIBILITY AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS (Clause 4.6.3)
    108 - APPENDIX E - MARKERS
    110 - APPENDIX G - PLASTICS PIPE INSERTION METHODS-MAINS AND SERVICES
    110 - G1 MAINS.
    110 - G2 SERVICES.
    111 - APPENDIX H - IDENTIFICATION AND ADDRESSES OF STANDARDS-ISSUING AND OTHER BODIES REFERRED TO IN THE CODE
    112 - APPENDIX J - RECOMMENDED WELDING SEQUENCE FOR HOT TAP FITTINGS
    113 - APPENDIX K - FRACTURE TOUGHNESS FOR STEEL TRANSMISSION PIPELINES AND MAINS
    113 - K1 GENERAL.
    113 - K2 FACTORS AFFECTING BRITTLE AND DUCTILE FRACTURE.
    113 - K3 TEMPERATURE.
    114 - K4 BRITTLE FRACTURE.
    114 - K5 DUCTILE FRACTURE.
    115 - APPENDIX L - ASSESSMENT OF CORRODED DIVISION 1 PIPELINES
    115 - L1 SCOPE.
    115 - L2 ASSESSMENT BY PRESSURE TESTING.
    115 - L3 ASSESSMENT BY CALCULATION.
    115 - L4 HOOP STRESS ANALYSIS.
    116 - L5 EXAMPLE.
    123 - INDEX
    127 - ANNEX
    128 - RECORD OF AMENDMENTS

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Covers selection of materials, and design, construction, testing, inspection, operating and maintenance of gas pipeline constructions in steel, cast iron, copper, UPVC and PE, and with pipe temperature limits of 230 degrees Celsius to -30 degrees Celsius. Includes a section on corrosion mitigation. The term 'gas' is intended to include natural gas, manufactured gas, and liquefied petroleum gas distributed as a vapour with or without the admixture of air, and the code deals with the lines, mains and gas service pipes up to the consumer's meter inlet but not piping beyond the consumer's service regulator, nor installation in petroleum processing plants, gas service regulator, nor installation in petrol processing plants, gas manufacturing plants, industrial plants or mines.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This standard sets out minimum safety requirements and makes recommendations for the design, fabrication, installation, inspection, testing, operation and maintenance of gas transmission and distribution systems in which the pipes are manufactured from steel, cast iron, copper and plastics (UPVC and PE), and qualify for use in termsof the relevant Section herein. This includes dual phase flow in natural gas pipelines. Gas transmission and distribution systems within the scope of this standard comprise all pipelines, mains and gas service pipes up to the consumer's meter inlet within the limits defined by Fig. 1.1. This standard also covers the conditions of use of elements of these piping systems, including but not limited to pipe, fittings, flanges, bolting, gaskets, regulators,pressure vessels, pulsation dampers and pressure-relief devices. This standard does not apply to the following:(a) Design and fabrication of pressure vessels covered by AS 1210 or other approved pressure vessel codes; or to LP gas installations covered by AS 1596.(b) Pipe or bottle type holders or containers.(c) Piping beyond the consumer's meter inlet which is governed by the gas supply authority's installation rules.(d) Petroleum processing plants, gas manufacturing plants, industrial plants or mines.(e) Vent piping to operate at substantially atmospheric pressure for waste gas of any kind.(f) Well-head assemblies, including control valves, and flow lines between well-head and trap or separator, or casing and tubing in gas or oil wells.(g) Manufacture of proprietary items of equipment, apparatus or instruments.(h) Petroleum and other liquid transportation piping systems or liquid slurry lines.It is also not intended that this standard be applied retroactively to existing installations in so far as design, fabrication, installation and testing at the time of construction are concerned. Further it is not intended that this standard be applied retroactively to established operating pressures of existing installations except as provided for in Section 11. However, provisions of this standard apply to operating and maintenance procedures of existinginstallations, and to existing installations when they are modified to operate under conditions within the scope of this standard.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee AG-008
    Document Type Standard
    Product Note See also AS 2885.1-1997 and AS 2885.3-1997
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Under Revision see DR 98571 (in part)

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 1596:2002 The storage and handling of LP Gas
    AS/NZS 2430.3.4:1997 Classification of hazardous areas - Examples of area classification - Flammable gases
    AS 2885.2-2002 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding
    AS 3862-1991 External fusion-bonded epoxy coating for steel pipes
    AS 5601-2004 Gas installations
    AS/NZS 2832.1:1998 Cathodic protection of metals - Pipes and cables
    AS/NZS 2885.5:2002 Pipelines-Gas and liquid petroleum - Field pressure testing
    AS/NZS 2430.3.4:2004 Classification of hazardous areas - Examples of area classification - Flammable gases
    AS 2832.1-2004 Cathodic protection of metals - Pipes and cables
    AS 1796-1993 Certification of welders and welding supervisors
    AS 2885.1-1997 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Design and construction
    AS 4041-1992 Pressure piping
    AS/NZS 1596:1997 Storage and handling of LP Gas
    AS 3920.1-1993 Assurance of product quality - Pressure equipment manufacture
    AS 3961-1991 Liquefied natural gas - Storage and handling
    AS 2832.2-2003 Cathodic protection of metals Compact buried structures
    AS 4799-2000 Installation of underground utility services and pipelines within railway boundaries
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