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  • AS/NZS 1554.1:2011

    AvailableSuperseded An Available Superseded Standard is one, which has been made available for a period of time although it has been formally superseded by another Standard. Its availability is maintained where it is referenced in legislation/regulations or in other Standards and its use should be restricted to where so referenced. No responsibility is taken by SAI Global as to the ongoing technical validity of such a Standard, the responsibility resting with the referencing authority.
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    Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  17-06-2011

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS/NZS 1554.1:2011 STRUCTURAL STEEL WELDING - WELDING OF STEEL STRUCTURES
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    7 - 1.1 SCOPE
    8 - 1.2 EXCLUSIONS
    8 - 1.3 INNOVATION
    8 - 1.4 NORMATIVE REFERENCES
    8 - 1.5 DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS
    8 - 1.5.1 Definitions
    9 - 1.5.2 Symbols
    9 - 1.6 WELD CATEGORIES
    9 - 1.7 MANAGEMENT OF QUALITY
    9 - 1.7.1 Quality management
    10 - 1.7.2 Basic welding requirements
    10 - 1.8 SAFETY
    10 - 1.8.1 Safety equipment and procedures
    10 - 1.8.2 Welding equipment
    10 - 1.8.3 Other hazards
    11 - SECTION 2 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
    11 - 2.1 PARENT MATERIAL
    11 - 2.2 BACKING MATERIAL
    11 - 2.3 WELDING CONSUMABLES
    11 - 2.3.1 Electrodes and filler wires
    12 - 2.3.2 Care of electrodes and filler wires
    12 - 2.3.3 Flux
    12 - 2.3.4 Shielding gas
    13 - SECTION 3 DETAILS OF WELDED CONNECTIONS
    13 - 3.1 GENERAL
    13 - 3.1.1 Permissible weld types
    13 - 3.1.2 Design stresses
    13 - 3.1.3 Drawings
    13 - 3.2 BUTT WELDS
    13 - 3.2.1 Size of weld
    13 - 3.2.2 Design throat thickness
    14 - 3.2.3 Effective length
    14 - 3.2.4 Effective area
    14 - 3.2.5 Transition of thickness or width
    14 - 3.3 FILLET WELDS
    14 - 3.3.1 Size of weld
    14 - 3.3.2 Design throat thickness
    15 - 3.3.3 Effective length
    15 - 3.3.4 Effective area
    15 - 3.3.5 Minimum size of fillet welds
    15 - 3.3.6 Maximum size of fillet welds along edges
    18 - 3.4 COMPOUND WELDS
    18 - 3.4.1 Description
    19 - 3.4.2 Design throat thickness (DTT)
    19 - 3.5 SEAL WELDS
    20 - 3.6 PLUG WELDS
    20 - 3.7 SLOT WELDS
    20 - 3.8 COMBINING STEEL SECTIONS
    22 - SECTION 4 QUALIFICATION OF PROCEDURES AND PERSONNEL
    22 - 4.1 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE
    22 - 4.1.1 General
    22 - 4.1.2 Butt welds
    23 - 4.1.3 Fillet welds
    24 - 4.1.4 Qualification of multiple welding positions
    24 - 4.2 METHODS FOR QUALIFYING A WELDING PROCEDURE
    24 - 4.3 PREQUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURES
    25 - 4.4 PORTABILITY OF QUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURES
    25 - 4.5 PREQUALIFIED JOINT PREPARATIONS
    25 - 4.5.1 General
    25 - 4.5.2 Prequalified complete penetration butt welds
    25 - 4.5.3 Prequalified incomplete penetration butt welds
    25 - 4.5.4 Prequalified fillet welds
    26 - 4.5.5 Additional requirements for welds in hollow section members
    32 - 4.6 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING CONSUMABLES
    32 - 4.6.1 Prequalified welding consumables
    39 - 4.6.2 Qualification of welding consumables by testing
    40 - 4.7 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE BY TESTING
    40 - 4.7.1 Method of qualification
    41 - 4.7.2 Preparation of special test piece
    41 - 4.7.3 Dimensions of test pieces
    41 - 4.7.4 Macro test
    41 - 4.7.5 Transverse butt tensile test
    44 - 4.7.6 Bend test
    44 - 4.7.7 Charpy impact test
    44 - 4.7.8 Hardness comparison test for parent metal and weld metal
    44 - 4.7.9 Hardness test for weld-heat-affected zones
    44 - 4.7.10 Retests
    44 - 4.8 EXTENSION OF QUALIFICATION
    45 - 4.9 COMBINATION OF PROCESSES
    45 - 4.10 RECORDS OF TESTS
    45 - 4.11 REQUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES
    49 - 4.12 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PERSONNEL
    49 - 4.12.1 Welding supervisor
    49 - 4.12.2 Welders
    53 - SECTION 5 WORKMANSHIP
    53 - 5.1 PREPARATION OF EDGES FOR WELDING
    53 - 5.1.1 General
    53 - 5.1.2 Thermal cutting
    53 - 5.2 ASSEMBLY
    53 - 5.2.1 General
    53 - 5.2.2 Alignment of butt-welded joints
    54 - 5.2.3 Alignment of fillet welds and incomplete penetration butt welds
    54 - 5.2.4 Separation of a backing material
    54 - 5.3 PREHEATING AND INTER-RUN CONTROL
    54 - 5.3.1 General
    54 - 5.3.2 Need for preheating
    55 - 5.3.3 Extent of preheating and cooling after welding
    55 - 5.3.4 Determination of preheating temperature
    56 - 5.3.5 Inter-run temperature determination
    61 - 5.4 WELDING UNDER ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS
    61 - 5.5 TACK WELDS
    61 - 5.6 WELD DEPTH-TO-WIDTH RATIO
    62 - 5.7 CONTROL OF DISTORTION AND RESIDUAL STRESS
    62 - 5.7.1 General
    62 - 5.7.2 Stressed parts
    62 - 5.7.3 Peening
    62 - 5.7.4 Correction of distortion
    63 - 5.8 BACKGOUGING AND REPAIR OF DEFECTS IN WELDS
    63 - 5.8.1 General
    63 - 5.8.2 Removal of weld metal
    63 - 5.8.3 Grinding
    63 - 5.8.4 Stop starts
    64 - 5.9 TEMPORARY ATTACHMENTS
    64 - 5.10 ARC STRIKES
    64 - 5.11 CLEANING OF FINISHED WELDS
    64 - 5.12 DRESSING OF BUTT WELDS
    65 - SECTION 6 QUALITY OF WELDS
    65 - 6.1 CATEGORIES OF WELDS
    65 - 6.2 METHODS OF INSPECTION AND PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF IMPERFECTIONS
    65 - 6.2.1 Methods of inspection of completed welds
    65 - 6.2.2 Permissible levels of imperfection
    65 - 6.2.3 Adjacent imperfections
    65 - 6.2.4 Interpretation of tests
    70 - 6.3 RADIOGRAPHY
    70 - 6.3.1 Method
    70 - 6.3.2 IQI sensitivity
    70 - 6.3.3 Acceptance limits
    71 - 6.4 ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
    71 - 6.4.1 Method
    71 - 6.4.2 Evaluation
    71 - 6.4.3 Acceptance limits
    72 - 6.5 MAGNETIC PARTICLE EXAMINATION
    72 - 6.6 LIQUID PENETRANT EXAMINATION
    72 - 6.7 WELD DEFECTS
    72 - 6.8 REPORTING
    73 - SECTION 7 INSPECTION
    73 - 7.1 GENERAL
    73 - 7.2 QUALIFICATIONS OF INSPECTORS
    73 - 7.3 VISUAL INSPECTION OF WORK
    74 - 7.4 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OTHER THAN VISUAL
    75 - APPENDIX A - NORMATIVE REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    78 - APPENDIX B - BRITTLE FRACTURE
    78 - B1 METHODS
    78 - B2 NOTCH-DUCTILE RANGE METHOD
    78 - B3 DESIGN SERVICE TEMPERATURE
    78 - B3.1 General
    78 - B3.2 Basic design temperature
    78 - B3.3 Modifications to the basic design temperature
    79 - B4 MATERIAL SELECTION
    79 - B4.1 Selection of steel type
    79 - B4.2 Limitations
    79 - B4.3 Modification for certain applications
    80 - B5 FRACTURE ASSESSMENT
    83 - APPENDIX C - TYPICAL FORMS FOR WELDING PROCEDURES
    86 - APPENDIX D - MATTERS FOR RESOLUTION
    87 - APPENDIX E - WELDED JOINT AND PROCESS IDENTIFICATION
    87 - E1 NOTATION FOR JOINT IDENTIFICATION
    87 - E2 NOTATION FOR DIMENSIONS, POSITIONS AND BACKING MATERIAL
    88 - E3 NOTATION FOR PROCESSES
    88 - E4 EXAMPLE
    106 - APPENDIX F - WELD PROCEDURE REQUIREMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES TO THE WELDING CONSUMABLE CLASSIFCATION SYSTEM
    106 - F1 GENERAL
    106 - F2 SYSTEM CHANGES
    106 - F2.1 Strength
    107 - F2.2 Impact resistance
    107 - F2.3 Flux designations (MMAW)
    107 - F2.4 Usability designations (FCAW)
    107 - F2.5 Positional designations
    107 - F2.6 Weld metal hydrogen
    108 - F3 EXTENSION OF WELD PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION
    108 - F4 OTHER PROCESSES
    110 - APPENDIX G - TYPICAL MATERIAL GROUPS FOR COMMON STEELS
    112 - BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies requirements for the welding of steel structures made up of combinations of steel plate, sheet or sections, including hollow sections and built-up sections, or castings and forgings. It is limited to the welding of steel parent material with a specified minimum yield strength not exceeding 500MPa. It does not apply to oxyacetylene, friction, thermit or resistance welding processes or to the welding of pressure vessels or pressure piping.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard specifies requirements for the welding of steel structures made up of combinations of steel plate, sheet or sections, including hollow sections and built-up sections, or castings and forgings, by the following processes:(a) Manual metal-arc welding (MMAW).(b) Submerged arc welding (SAW).(c) Gas metal-arc welding (GMAW or MIG), including pulsed mode.(d) Gas tungsten-arc welding (GTAW or TIG).(e) Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW).(f) Electroslag (including consumable guide) welding (ESW).(g) Electrogas welding (EGW).The Standard is limited to the welding of steel parent material with a specified minimum yield strength not exceeding 500 MPa.The Standard applies to the welding of steelwork in structures complying with AS 3990, AS 4100, AS/NZS 4600 or NZS 3404.1. Where welded joints in these structures are governed by dynamic loading conditions, the Standard applies only to those welded joints that comply with the fatigue provisions of AS 3990, AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1, as limited by Item (ii) below, or the directly equivalent fatigue provisions of other application Standards.Welded joints complying with the above are those that are - (i) not subject to fatigue conditions; or(ii) subject to fatigue conditions, where—(A) the stress range in the welded joint complies with the permissible stress range of stress categories C, D, E or F of AS 3990, or weld categories lower than or equal to detail category 112 of AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1; or(B) the stress range in the welded joint is not greater than 80% of the permissible stress range of stress category B of AS 3990.In addition to the abovementioned structures, the Standard applies to the welding of cranes, hoists and other dynamically loaded structures, the welding of road and pedestrian bridges and the welding of steelwork in applications other than structural.NOTE: Further information on this Standard, is given in WTIA Technical Note 11.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee WD-003
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status AvailableSuperseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published in Australia as AS CA8-1933.
    Second edition 1939.
    Revised and redesignated in part as AS Int 352-1952.
    AS Int 352-1952 and part of AS CA8-1939 revised, amalgamated and redesignated as AS CA8.1-1965.
    Revised and redesignated in part as AS 1554.1-1974.
    Second edition 1980.
    Third edition 1985.
    Fourth edition 1991.
    First published in New Zealand in part as NZS 4701:1981.
    NZS 4704 first published 1994.
    AS 1554.1-1991, NZS 4701:1981 and NZS 4704:1994 jointly revised, amalgamated and designated AS/NZS 1554.1:1995.
    Sixth edition 2000.
    Seventh edition 2004.
    Eighth edition 2011.
    Originated in Australia as AS CA8-1933. Originated in New Zealand, in part, as NZS 4701:1981. Previous edition AS/NZS 1554.1:2004. Eighth edition 2011.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 1336:1997 Recommended practices for occupational eye protection
    AS 1796-2001 Certification of welders and welding supervisors (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 1594:2002 Hot-rolled steel flat products
    AS ISO 13916-2003 Welding - Guide on the measurement of preheating temperature, interpass temperature and preheat maintenance temperature
    AS 2207-2007 Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing of fusion welded joints in carbon and low alloy steel
    AS 1817.2-2002 Metallic materials - Vickers hardness test Verification of testing machines
    AS/NZS 1337.5:2004 Personal eye-protection Eye-protectors for adjustment work on lasers and laser systems (laser adjustment eye-protectors)
    AS/NZS 1553.2:1999 Covered electrodes for welding - Low and intermediate alloy steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and low and intermediate alloy steels
    AS/NZS ISO 3834.2:2008 Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials Comprehensive quality requirements (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS/NZS 3992:1998 Pressure equipment - Welding and brazing qualification
    AS 1858.1-2003 Electrodes and fluxes for submerged-arc welding Carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels
    AS/NZS 3679.1:2010 Structural steel Hot-rolled bars and sections
    AS/NZS 1554.5:2004 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures subject to high levels of fatigue loading
    AS 3545-2004 Welding positions
    AS/NZS 1337.0(Int):2010 Personal eye protection - Eye and face protectors - Vocabulary
    AS 2205.5.1-2003 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal Macro metallographic test for cross-section examination
    AS 60974.11-2005 Arc welding equipment - Electrode holders
    AS 3990-1993 Mechanical equipment - Steelwork (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 2074-2003 Cast steels
    AS 1450-2007 Steel tubes for mechanical purposes
    AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009 Risk management - Principles and guidelines
    AS 2214-2004 Certification of welding supervisors - Structural steel welding
    AS 1817.3-2002 Metallic materials - Vickers hardness test Calibration of reference blocks
    AS 2062-1997 Non-destructive testing - Penetrant testing of products and components
    AS/NZS ISO 3834.4:2008 Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials Elementary quality requirements (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 2799-1992 Resistance welding equipment - Single-phase a.c. transformer type
    AS 1674.2-2007 Safety in welding and allied processes Electrical (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 2865-2009 Confined spaces
    AS 1171-1998 Non-destructive testing - Magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic products, components and structures
    AS/NZS 1338.1:1992 Filters for eye protectors Filters for protection against radiation generated in welding and allied operations
    AS/NZS 2980:2007 Qualification of welders for fusion welding of steels
    AS 1397-2001 Steel sheet and strip - Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated
    AS 2205.6.1-2003 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal Weld joint hardness test
    AS/NZS 1337.1:2010 Personal eye protection Eye and face protectors for occupational applications
    AS 1858.2-1989 Electrodes and fluxes for submerged-arc welding - Low and intermediate alloy steels
    AS 4882-2003 Shielding gases for welding
    AS/NZS 1337.4:2004 Personal eye-protection - Filters and eye-protectors against laser radiation (laser eye-protectors)
    AS 1817.1-2003 Metallic materials - Vickers hardness test Test method (ISO 6507-1:1997, MOD)
    AS/NZS 2717.1:1996 Welding - Electrodes - Gas metal arc - Ferritic steel electrodes
    AS/NZS ISO 3834.1:2008 Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials Criteria for the selection of the appropriate level of quality requirements (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS/NZS 1337.6:2007 Personal eye protection - Prescription eye protectors against low and medium impact
    AS/NZS 1995:2003 Welding cables (Reconfirmed 2017)
    AS/NZS 1163:2009 Cold-formed structural steel hollow sections
    AS 4037-1999 Pressure equipment - Examination and testing (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 3678:2011 Structural steel - Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs
    AS 4100-1998 Steel structures (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1101.3-2005 Graphical symbols for general engineering Welding and non-destructive examination
    AS/NZS 3679.2:2010 Structural steel Welded I sections
    AS 4458-1997 Pressure equipment - Manufacture (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 2205.7.1-2003 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal Charpy V-notch impact fracture toughness test
    AS/NZS 4857:2006 Welding consumables - Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of high-strength steels - Classification (Reconfirmed 2017)
    AS 2812-2005 Welding, brazing and cutting of metals - Glossary of terms (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 2205.2.1-2003 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal Transverse butt tensile test
    AS 1470-1986 Health and safety at work - Principles and practices
    AS 4100 SUPP 1-1999 Steel structures - Commentary (Supplement to AS 4100-1998)
    AS/NZS 4600 SUPP 1:1998 Cold-formed steel structures - Commentary (Supplement to AS/NZS 4600:1996)
    AS 2205.3.1-2003 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal Transverse guided bend test
    AS/NZS ISO 17632:2006 Welding consumables - Tubular cored electrodes for gas shielded and non-gas shielded metal arc welding of non-alloy and fine grain steels - Classification (ISO 17632:2004, MOD) (Reconfirmed 2017)
    AS 2314-2006 Radiography of metals - Image quality indicators (IQI) and recommendations for their use
    AS/NZS 1553.1:1995 Covered electrodes for welding - Low carbon steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels
    AS 1548-2008 Fine grained, weldable steel plates for pressure equipment (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS/NZS 1554.1:2004 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures
    AS/NZS 4600:2005 Cold-formed steel structures
    AS 2203.1-1990 Cored electrodes for arc-welding - Ferritic steel electrodes
    AS/NZS 1595:1998 Cold-rolled, unalloyed, steel sheet and strip (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1674.1-1997 Safety in welding and allied processes Fire precautions (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 1167.2:1999 Welding and brazing - Filler metals Filler metal for welding
    AS/NZS ISO 3834.3:2008 Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials Standard quality requirements (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 60974.1-2006 Arc welding equipment Welding power sources (IEC 60974-1:2000, MOD)
    AS/NZS 4855:2007 Welding consumables - Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of non-alloy and fine grain steels - Classification

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 2980:2018 Qualification of welders for fusion welding of steels - Additional requirements for Australia and New Zealand
    AS 1657-2013 Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders - Design, construction and installation
    AS/NZS 1576.4:2013 Scaffolding Suspended scaffolding
    AS 4795.2-2011 Butterfly valves for waterworks purposes Double flanged
    AS/NZS 3584.3:2012 Diesel engine systems for underground coal mines Maintenance
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