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  • AS 4100 SUPP 1-1999

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    Steel structures - Commentary (Supplement to AS 4100-1998)

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  05-03-1999

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 4100 SUPP1-1999 STEEL STRUCTURES - COMMENTARY (SUPPLEMENT TO AS 4100-1998)
    4 - PREFACE
    4 - ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    5 - CONTENTS
    9 - SECTION C1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    9 - C1.1 SCOPE
    10 - C1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    10 - C1.3 DEFINITIONS
    10 - C1.4 NOTATION
    10 - C1.5 USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS OR METHODS
    10 - C1.6 DESIGN
    10 - C1.7 CONSTRUCTION
    10 - REFERENCES
    11 - SECTION C2 MATERIALS
    11 - C2.1 YIELD STRESS AND TENSILE STRENGTH USED IN DESIGN
    11 - C2.2 STRUCTURAL STEEL
    11 - C2.3 FASTENERS
    11 - C2.4 STEEL CASTINGS
    12 - REFERENCE
    13 - SECTION C3 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
    13 - C3.1 DESIGN
    13 - C3.2 LOADS AND OTHER ACTIONS
    14 - C3.3 STABILITY LIMIT STATE
    14 - C3.4 STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
    15 - C3.5 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
    17 - C3.6 – C3.11 No Commentary
    17 - REFERENCES
    19 - SECTION C4 METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
    19 - INTRODUCTION
    19 - C4.1 METHODS OF DETERMINING ACTION EFFECTS
    20 - C4.2 FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION ASSUMED FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
    21 - C4.3 ASSUMPTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
    22 - C4.4 ELASTIC ANALYSIS
    25 - C4.5 PLASTIC ANALYSIS
    25 - C4.6 MEMBER BUCKLING ANALYSIS
    27 - C4.7 FRAME BUCKLING ANALYSIS
    28 - REFERENCES
    30 - SECTION C5 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO BENDING
    30 - INTRODUCTION
    30 - C5.1 DESIGN FOR BENDING MOMENT
    31 - C5.2 SECTION MOMENT CAPACITY FOR BENDING ABOUT A PRINCIPAL AXIS
    34 - C5.3 MEMBER CAPACITY OF SEGMENTS WITH FULL LATERAL RESTRAINT
    36 - C5.4 RESTRAINTS
    38 - C5.5 CRITICAL FLANGE
    38 - C5.6 MEMBER CAPACITY OF SEGMENTS WITHOUT FULL LATERAL RESTRAINT
    43 - C5.7 BENDING IN A NON-PRINCIPAL PLANE
    43 - C5.8 SEPARATORS AND DIAPHRAGMS
    43 - C5.9 DESIGN OF WEBS
    44 - C5.10 ARRANGEMENT OF WEBS
    45 - C5.11 SHEAR CAPACITY OF WEBS
    50 - C5.12 INTERACTION OF SHEAR AND BENDING
    51 - C5.13 COMPRESSIVE BEARING ACTION ON THE EDGE OF A WEB
    52 - C5.14 DESIGN OF LOAD BEARING STIFFENERS
    53 - C5.15 DESIGN OF INTERMEDIATE TRANSVERSE WEB STIFFENERS
    54 - C5.16 DESIGNING OF LONGITUDINAL WEB STIFFENERS
    55 - REFERENCES
    58 - SECTION C6 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO AXIAL COMPRESSION
    58 - INTRODUCTION
    58 - C6.1 DESIGN FOR AXIAL COMPRESSION
    58 - C6.2 NOMINAL SECTION CAPACITY
    59 - C6.3 NOMINAL MEMBER CAPACITY
    61 - C6.4 LACED AND BATTENED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
    63 - C6.5 COMPRESSION MEMBERS BACK TO BACK
    64 - C6.6 RESTRAINTS
    64 - REFERENCES
    67 - SECTION C7 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO AXIAL TENSION
    67 - C7.1 DESIGN FOR AXIAL TENSION
    67 - C7.2 NOMINAL SECTION CAPACITY
    68 - C7.3 DISTRIBUTION OF FORCES
    69 - C7.4 TENSION MEMBERS WITH TWO OR MORE MAIN COMPONENTS
    69 - C7.5 MEMBERS WITH PIN CONNECTIONS
    70 - REFERENCES
    71 - SECTION C8 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO COMBINED ACTIONS
    71 - INTRODUCTION
    71 - C8.1 GENERAL
    71 - C8.2 DESIGN ACTIONS
    72 - C8.3 SECTION CAPACITY
    72 - C8.4 MEMBER CAPACITY
    75 - C8.5 TORSION
    82 - REFERENCES
    84 - SECTION C9 CONNECTIONS
    84 - C9.1 GENERAL
    87 - C9.2 DEFINITIONS
    87 - C9.3 DESIGN OF BOLTS
    95 - C9.4 ASSESSMENT OF THE STRENGTH OF A BOLT GROUP
    97 - C9.5 DESIGN OF A PIN CONNECTION
    97 - C9.6 DESIGN DETAILS FOR BOLTS AND PINS
    98 - C9.7 DESIGN OF WELDS
    106 - C9.8 ASSESSMENT OF THE STRENGTH OF A WELD GROUP
    109 - C9.9 PACKING IN CONSTRUCTION
    109 - REFERENCES
    112 - SECTION C10 BRTTLE FRACTURE
    112 - INTRODUCTION
    112 - C10.2 METHODS
    112 - C10.3 NOTCH-DUCTILE RANGE METHOD
    113 - C10.4 DESIGN SERVICE TEMPERATURE
    113 - C10.5 MATERIAL SELECTION
    114 - C10.6 FRACTURE ASSESSMENT
    117 - REFERENCES
    119 - SECTION C11 FATIGUE
    119 - INTRODUCTION
    121 - C11.1 GENERAL
    122 - C11.2 FATIGUE LOADING
    123 - C11.3 DESIGN SPECTRUM
    124 - C11.4 EXEMPTION FROM FURTHER ASSESSMENT
    124 - C11.5 DETAIL CATEGORY
    125 - C11.6 FATIGUE STRENGTH
    125 - C11.7 EXEMPTION FROM FURTHER ASSESSMENT
    125 - C11.8 FATIGUE ASSESSMENT
    126 - C11.9 PUNCHING LIMITATION
    126 - REFERENCES
    127 - SECTION C12 FIRE
    127 - C12.1 REQUIREMENTS
    127 - C12.2 DEFINITIONS
    127 - C12.3 DETERMINATION OF PERIOD OF STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY
    128 - C12.4 VARIATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL WITH TEMPERATURE
    128 - C12.5 DETERMINATION OF LIMITING STEEL TEMPERATURE
    128 - C12.6 DETERMINATION OF TIME AT WHICH LIMITING TEMPERATURE IS ATTAINED FOR PROTECTED MEMBERS
    128 - C12.7 DETERMINATION OF TIME AT WHICH LIMITING TEMPERATURE IS ATTAINED FOR UNPROTECTED MEMBERS
    128 - C12.8 DETERMINATION OF PSA FROM A SINGLE TEST
    129 - C12.9 THREE-SIDED FIRE EXPOSURE CONDITION
    129 - C12.10 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
    129 - REFERENCES
    131 - SECTION C13 EARTHQUAKE
    131 - INTRODUCTION
    131 - C13.1 GENERAL
    131 - C13.2 DEFINITIONS
    131 - C13.3 DESIGN AND DETAILING REQUIREMENTS
    134 - C13.4 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-BUILDING STRUCTURES
    134 - ADDITIONAL COMMENTARY- SECOND ORDER EFFECTS
    135 - REFERENCES
    136 - SECTION C14 FABRICATION
    136 - C14.1 GENERAL
    136 - C14.2 MATERIAL
    137 - C14.3 FABRICATION PROCEDURES
    142 - C14.4 TOLERANCES
    144 - C14.5 INSPECTION
    145 - C14. 6 FABRICATION MATTERS AND CONTRACT DOCUMENTS
    145 - REFERENCES
    147 - SECTION C15 ERECTION
    147 - C15.1 GENERAL
    148 - C15.2 ERECTION PROCEDURES
    151 - C15.3 TOLERANCES
    153 - C15.4 INSPECTION OF BOLTED CONNECTIONS
    154 - C15.5 GROUTING AT SUPPORTS
    154 - C15.6 INSPECTION
    154 - C15.7 ERECTION MATTERS AND CONTRACT DOCUMENTS
    154 - REFERENCES
    155 - SECTION C16 MODIFICATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURES
    155 - C16.1 GENERAL
    156 - C16.2 MATERIALS
    156 - C16.3 CLEANING
    156 - C16.4 SPECIAL PROVISIONS
    157 - REFERENCE
    158 - SECTION C17 TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR ELEMENTS
    158 - C17.1 GENERAL
    158 - C17.2 DEFINITIONS
    159 - C17.3 TEST REQUIREMENTS
    159 - C17.4 PROOF TESTING
    160 - C17.5 PROTOTYPE TESTING
    160 - C17.6 REPORT OF TESTS
    162 - APPENDIX CA - DOCUMENTS REFERENCED
    163 - APPENDIX CB - SUGGESTED DEFLECTION LIMITS
    164 - APPENDIX CC - CORROSION PROTECTION
    165 - APPENDIX CD - ADVANCED STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
    166 - APPENDIX CE - SECOND-ORDER ELASTIC ANALYSIS
    167 - APPENDIX CF - MOMENT AMPLIFICATION FOR A SWAY MEMBER
    168 - APPENDIX CG - BRACED MEMBER BUCKLING IN FRAMES
    169 - APPENDIX CH - ELASTIC RESISTANCE TO LATERAL BUCKLING
    171 - APPENDIX CI - STRENGTH OF STIFFENED WEB PANELS UNDER COMBINED ACTIONS
    172 - APPENDIX CJ - STANDARD TEST FOR EVALUATION OF SLIP FACTOR
    173 - APPENDIX CK - INSPECTION OF BOLT TENSION USING A TORQUE WRENCH
    174 - APPENDIX CL - LIMIT STATES DATA SHEETS

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Provides background information and guidance to the requirements of AS4100-1998.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    The Standard sets out the minimum requirements for the limit states design, fabrication, erection, and modification of safe, serviceable and durable steel structures. There may be additional requirements not specifically covered in the Standard which may also have to be considered by design engineers. Road and railway bridges are covered by the Australian Bridge Design Code HB 77 (written in limit states format). HB 77 uses the Standard as the basis of its steel bridge design provisions. Steel elements less than 3 mm thick are excluded for reasons of practicality and concern about corrosion, because members from thinner material are usually cold-formed and then they fall within the scope of AS/NZS 4600. In addition, the connections in elements less than 3 mm thick are better handled by the provisions of AS/NZS 4600 than by the Standard. The exceptions to this exclusion are hollow section members to AS 1163. Hollow section members to AS 1163 are most commonly cold-formed, but have traditionally been designed using the previous editions of the Standard since they were for many years hot-formed. Tests carried out on members manufactured to AS 1163 confirm the applicability of the provisions of the Standard for such members including members with a wall thickness less than 3 mm. (Refs 1, 2 and 3). All other cold-formed members should be designed in accordance with AS/NZS 4600. The limit of 450 MPa for the yield stress used in design stems from a lack of research data on steel grades above this value, and the applicability of all of the member design provisions for a higher design yield stress cannot be confirmed. Australian steel Standards generally contain no steel grades with a specified yield stress above 450 MPa, with the exception of one grade (XF500) in AS/NZS 1594. Additional provisions to those in the standards may be required for steels of higher yield stress. Clause 1.1 does not preclude the use of steels having a specified yield stress greater than 450 MPa provided that the yield stress used in design (fy) is limited to 450 MPa. Note,however, that the use of a steel having a specified yield stress greater than 450 MPa is specifically excluded from plastic design by Clause 4.5.2. Composite steel-concrete members should be designed using the provisions of AS 2327, Composite structures. The Standard is not intended to be used for thin-walled shell or plate structures since such structures are subject to failure modes not addressed in the Standard. It is, however, considered reasonable to design floor plates using the Standard. (See Introduction to Commentary on Section 5.)

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as AS 4100 Supplement 1-1990.Second edition 1999. First published as AS 4100 Supp1-1990. Second edition 1999.

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

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    AS 2159-2009 Piling - Design and installation
    AS 5100.6-2004 Bridge design - Steel and composite construction
    AS 5216:2018 Design of post-installed and cast-in fastenings in concrete
    SA HB 108-2013 Timber design handbook
    AS 4773.2-2010 Masonry in small buildings - Construction
    AS/NZS 2041.2:2011 Buried corrugated metal structures Installation
    AS/NZS 4673:2001 Cold-formed stainless steel structures
    AS 2067-2008 Substations and high voltage installations exceeding 1 kV a.c.
    AS 1725.4-2010 Chain link fabric fencing Cricket net fencing enclosures (Reconfirmed 2020)
    AS 3780-2008 The storage and handling of corrosive substances
    AS 3700-2011 Masonry structures
    AS 1725.2-2010 Chain link fabric fencing Tennis court fencing - Commercial (Reconfirmed 2020)
    AS 2809.2-2008 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods - Road tank vehicles for flammable liquids
    AS 4852.1-2009 Variable message signs - Fixed signs
    AS 3533.1-2009 Amusement rides and devices Design and construction
    AS 2316.1-2009 Artificial climbing structures and challenge courses Fixed and mobile artificial climbing and abseiling walls
    AS/NZS 7000:2010 Overhead line design - Detailed procedures
    AS 1725.1-2010 Chain link fabric fencing Security fences and gates - General requirements (Reconfirmed 2020)
    AS/NZS 3679.1:2010 Structural steel Hot-rolled bars and sections
    AS 1170.4-2007 Structural design actions Earthquake actions in Australia (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 1720.1-2010 Timber structures Design methods
    AS 2809.4:2017 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods Tankers for toxic and corrosive cargoes
    AS/NZS 5131:2016 Structural steelwork - Fabrication and erection
    AS/NZS 2041:1998 Buried corrugated metal structures
    AS/NZS 3679.2:2010 Structural steel Welded I sections
    AS/NZS 3678:2011 Structural steel - Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs
    AS 3785.7-2006 Underground mining - Shaft equipment Sheaves
    AS 2304-2011 Water storage tanks for fire protection systems
    AS/NZS 1554.1:2011 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures
    AS 4324.1:2017 Mobile equipment for continuous handling of bulk materials General requirements for the design of steel structures
    AS 1725.5-2010 Chain link fabric fencing Sports ground fencing - General requirements (Reconfirmed 2020)
    AS/NZS 4994.1:2009 Temporary edge protection General requirements
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