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  • AS/NZS 1554.4:1995

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    Structural steel welding - Welding of high strength quenched and tempered steels

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-01-1995

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS/NZS 1554.4:1995 STRUCTURAL STEEL WELDING - WELDING OF HIGH STRENGTH QUENCHED AND TEMPERED STEELS
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    7 - 1.1 SCOPE
    8 - 1.2 INNOVATION
    8 - 1.3 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    8 - 1.4 DEFINITIONS
    8 - 1.4.1 Fabricator
    8 - 1.4.2 Inspecting authority
    8 - 1.4.3 Inspector
    8 - 1.4.4 May
    8 - 1.4.5 Principal
    8 - 1.4.6 Shall
    8 - 1.4.7 Should
    9 - 1.5 WELD CATEGORIES
    9 - 1.5.1 General
    9 - 1.5.2 Categories
    9 - 1.6 BASIC WELDING REQUIREMENTS
    9 - 1.7 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
    9 - 1.7.1 Welding safety
    9 - 1.7.2 Welding equipment
    10 - SECTION 2 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
    10 - 2.1 PARENT MATERIAL
    10 - 2.2 BACKING MATERIAL
    10 - 2.2.1 Permanent backing material
    10 - 2.2.2 Temporary backing
    10 - 2.3 WELDING CONSUMABLES
    10 - 2.3.1 Electrodes and filler wires
    10 - 2.3.2 Care of electrodes and filler wires
    10 - 2.3.3 Flux
    10 - 2.3.4 Shielding gas
    11 - SECTION 3 DETAILS OF WELDED CONNECTIONS
    11 - 3.1 GENERAL
    11 - 3.1.1 Permissible weld types
    11 - 3.1.2 Design stresses
    11 - 3.1.3 Drawings
    11 - 3.2 BUTT WELDS
    11 - 3.2.1 Size of weld
    11 - 3.2.2 Design throat thickness
    12 - 3.2.3 Effective length
    12 - 3.2.4 Effective area
    12 - 3.2.5 Transition of thickness or width
    12 - 3.3 FILLET WELDS
    12 - 3.3.1 Size of weld
    12 - 3.3.2 Design throat thickness
    12 - 3.3.3 Effective length
    12 - 3.3.4 Effective area
    12 - 3.3.5 Minimum size of fillet welds
    15 - 3.3.6 Maximum size of fillet welds along edges
    15 - 3.4 COMPOUND WELDS
    15 - 3.4.1 Description of compound weld
    16 - 3.4.2 Design throat thickness
    17 - 3.5 SEAL WELDS
    17 - 3.5.1 Requirement
    17 - 3.5.2 Size of seal weld
    17 - 3.6 PLUG AND SLOT WELDS
    17 - 3.6.1 General
    17 - 3.6.2 Plug welds
    17 - 3.6.2 Slot welds
    17 - 3.6.3 Effective areas
    18 - SECTION 4 QUALIFICATION OF PROCEDURES AND PERSONNEL
    18 - 4.1 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE
    18 - 4.2 METHOD OF QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE
    18 - 4.3 PREQUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURES
    19 - 4.4 PREQUALIFIED JOINT PREPARATIONS
    19 - 4.4.1 General
    19 - 4.4.2 Prequalified complete penetration butt welds
    19 - 4.4.3 Prequalified incomplete penetration butt welds
    19 - 4.4.4 Prequalified fillet welds
    19 - 4.4.5 Additional requirements for welds in hollow section members
    45 - 4.5 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING CONSUMABLES
    45 - 4.5.1 Prequalified welding consumables
    45 - 4.5.2 Qualification of welding consumables by testing
    45 - 4.6 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE BY TESTING
    45 - 4.6.1 Method of qualification
    46 - 4.6.2 Extent of testing
    46 - 4.6.3 Preparation of special test piece
    46 - 4.6.4 Dimensions of test pieces
    46 - 4.6.5 Macro test
    49 - 4.6.6 Transverse butt tensile test
    49 - 4.6.7 Bend test
    49 - 4.6.8 Charpy impact test
    49 - 4.6.9 Hardness comparison test - Parent metal and weld metal
    49 - 4.6.10 Hardness test - heat-affected zone
    49 - 4.6.11 Retests
    49 - 4.7 EXTENSION OF QUALIFICATION
    49 - 4.8 COMBINATION OF PROCESSES
    49 - 4.8.1 Single process each side of a weld
    49 - 4.8.2 Combination of processes on the same side of a joint
    50 - 4.9 RECORDS OF TESTS
    50 - 4.10 REQUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES
    50 - 4.10.1 Changes in essential variables requiring requalification of welding procedure
    50 - 4.10.2 Minor changes requiring requalification of welding procedure by macro test
    50 - 4.11 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PERSONNEL
    50 - 4.11.1 Welding supervisor
    50 - 4.11.2 Welders
    55 - SECTION 5 WORKMANSHIP
    55 - 5.1 PREPARATION OF EDGES FOR WELDING
    55 - 5.1.1 General
    55 - 5.1.2 Thermal cutting
    55 - 5.2 ASSEMBLY
    55 - 5.2.1 General
    55 - 5.2.2 Alignment of butt welded joints
    55 - 5.2.3 Alignment of fillet welds and in complete penetration butt welds
    56 - 5.2.4 Separation of a backing material
    56 - 5.3 PREHEATING AND INTERRUN TEMPERATURES AND ARC ENERGY
    57 - 5.4 WELDING UNDER ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS
    57 - 5.4.1 Rain, snow, wind, condensation
    57 - 5.4.2 Low temperature
    57 - 5.5 TACK WELDS
    57 - 5.6 WELD DEPTH-TO-WIDTH RATIO
    57 - 5.7 CONTROL OF DISTORTION AND RESIDUAL STRESS
    57 - 5.7.1 General
    58 - 5.7.2 Welding and cutting under stress
    58 - 5.7.3 Peening
    58 - 5.7.4 Correction of distortion
    58 - 5.8 REPAIR OF DEFECTS IN WELDS
    58 - 5.8.1 General
    58 - 5.8.2 Grinding
    59 - 5.8.3 Stop/Starts
    59 - 5.9 TEMPORARY ATTACHMENTS
    59 - 5.10 ARC STRIKES
    59 - 5.11 CLEANING OF FINISHED WELDS
    59 - 5.12 DRESSING OF BUTT WELDS
    60 - SECTION 6 QUALITY OF WELDS
    60 - 6.1 CATEGORIES OF WELDS
    60 - 6.2 METHODS OF INSPECTION AND PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF IMPERFECTIONS
    60 - 6.2.1 Methods of inspection of completed welds
    60 - 6.2.2 Permissiblel evels of imperfection
    60 - 6.2.3 Adjacent imperfections
    60 - 6.2.4 Qualifications of welding procedure by macro test and side-bend test
    60 - 6.3 RADIOGRAPHY
    60 - 6.3.1 Method
    61 - 6.3.2 IQI sensitivity
    61 - 6.3.3 Acceptance limits
    61 - 6.4 ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
    61 - 6.4.1 Method
    61 - 6.4.2 Equipment requirements
    61 - 6.4.3 Evaluation
    62 - 6.4.4 Acceptance limits
    62 - 6.5 MAGNETIC PARTICLE EXAMINATION
    62 - 6.5.1 Method
    62 - 6.5.2 Acceptance limits
    62 - 6.6 LIQUID PENETRANT EXAMINATION
    62 - 6.6.1 Method
    62 - 6.6.2 Acceptance limits
    63 - 6.7 WELD DEFECTS
    63 - 6.8 REPORTING
    68 - SECTION 7 INSPECTION
    68 - 7.1 GENERAL
    68 - 7.2 QUALIFICATIONS OF INSPECTORS
    68 - 7.3 VISUAL INSPECTION OF WORK
    68 - 7.4 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OTHER THAN VISUAL EXAMINATION
    68 - 7.4.1 Extent of non-destructive examination
    68 - 7.4.2 Personnel and operator requirements
    69 - APPENDIX A - LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    71 - APPENDIX B - A SUITABLE FORM OF WELDING PROCEDURE SHEET
    72 - APPENDIX C - METHOD FOR JOINT AND PROCESS IDENTIFICATION
    72 - C1 PREQUALIFIED JOINT IDENTIFICATION
    72 - C2 PROCESS IDENTIFICATION
    72 - C3 EXAMPLE
    73 - APPENDIX D - CHECKLIST OF MATTERS FOR DISCUSSION
    74 - APPENDIX E - SUGGESTED EXTENT OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Specifies requirements for the welding of a wide range of welded construction using high strength quenched and tempered steels with a specified minimum yield strength not exceeding 800 MPa. It applies to statically loaded structures as well as some welds subject to fatigue conditions, and provides three categories of weld with three differing levels of weld quality assurance associated with different types of service to which the welds are subjected.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard specifies materials of construction, weld preparations and weld qualities, qualification of welding procedures and welding personnel and fabrication and inspection requirements for welds related to the fusion welding of steelwork in structures made up of combinations of steel plate, sheet or sections, including hollow sections and built-up sections, or castings and forgings, by the following processes:(a) Manual metal-arc welding (MMAW).(b) Submerged arc welding (SAW).(c) Gas metal-arc welding (GMAW), including pulsed mode.(d) Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW).(e) Electroslag (including consumable guide) welding (ESW) (see Note).(f) Electrogas welding (EGW) (see Note).NOTE: These processes may not be suitable for welding quenched and tempered steels (see WTIA Technical Note 15).The Standard is limited to the welding of quenched and tempered steel parent material complying with Clause 2.1.The Standard applies specifically to the welding of steelwork in structures complying with appropriate Standards (see Note below). Where the proportions of welded joints in these structures are governed by dynamic loading conditions, the Standard applies only to those welded joints which comply with the fatigue provisions of AS 3990, as limited by (ii) below, or with the directly equivalent fatigue provisions of other application Standards.Where the operating temperature is lower than -10C, special consideration should be given to brittle fracture.The Standard applies to welded joints which are -(i) not subject to fatigue conditions; or (ii) subject to fatigue conditions; and- (A) the stress range in the welded joint complies with the permissible stress range of stress categories C, D, E, or F of AS 3990, or weld categories lower than or equal to detail category 112 of AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1; or (B) the stress range in the welded joint is not more than 80% of the permissible stress range of stress category B of AS 3990, (category SP weld, see Clause 1.5.2); or (C) the stress range in the welded joint is greater than 80% of the permissible stress range for stress category B of AS 3990, or exceeds the stress range permitted for detail category 112 of AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1 (category FP weld, see Clause 1.5.2), but does not exceed the maximum stress ranges permitted for these categories.In addition to the abovementioned structures, the Standard applies to the welding of cranes, hoists, earthmoving equipment and other dynamically loaded structures, the welding of road and pedestrian bridges and the welding of steelwork in applications other than structural.NOTE: Complementary codes which facilitate design in and fabrication of high strength quenched and tempered steels include the following:(a) American Institute of Steel Construction Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings.(b) American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.(c) American Railway Engineering Association Specifications for Steel Railway Bridges. The Standard does not apply to the welding of structures by the following processes: (1) Oxy-fuel gas welding (GW). (2) Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). (3) Resistance welding (RW). (4) Friction welding (FW). (5) Thermit welding (TW).The Standard does not apply to the welding of pressure vessels and pressure piping.The Standard does not cover the designof welded connections andpermissible stresses in welds, or the production and rectification repair of castings.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee WD-003
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Under Revision see DR 02617 First published as AS 1554.4-1989.Jointly revised and designated AS/NZS 1554.4:1995. First published as AS 1554.4-1989. Jointly revised and designated AS/NZS 1554.4:1995.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 2205.5.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Macro metallographic test for cross-section examination
    AS 1450-1983 Steel tubes for mechanical purposes
    AS 1674.2-1990 Safety in welding and allied processes - Electrical
    AS 1171-1998 Non-destructive testing - Magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic products, components and structures (Reconfirmed 2022)
    AS 2207-1994 Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing of fusion welded joints in carbon and low alloy steel
    AS 2205.2.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Transverse butt tensile test
    AS 1995-1977 Welding cables
    AS 1336-1982 Recommended practices for eye protection in the industrial environment
    AS 3990-1993 Mechanical equipment - Steelwork (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 2812-1985 Welding, brazing and cutting of metals - Glossary of terms
    AS 3597-1993 Structural and pressure vessel steel - Quenched and tempered plate
    AS 2214-1994 Certification of welding supervisors - Structural steel welding
    AS 1553.2-1987 Covered electrodes for welding - Low and intermediate alloy steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and low and intermediate alloy steels
    AS 2980-1987 Qualification of arc-welders for welding of steels
    AS/NZS 1338.1:1992 Filters for eye protectors Filters for protection against radiation generated in welding and allied operations
    AS 2062-1997 Non-destructive testing - Penetrant testing of products and components
    AS 2205.6.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Weld joint hardness test
    AS 1101.3-1987 Graphical symbols for general engineering - Welding and non-destructive examination
    AS/NZS 1337:1992 Eye protectors for industrial applications
    AS 1470-1986 Health and safety at work - Principles and practices
    AS 1966.2-1985 Electric arc welding power sources - Rotary type
    AS 1817-1991 Metallic materials - Vickers hardness test
    AS 2203.1-1990 Cored electrodes for arc-welding - Ferritic steel electrodes
    AS 1796-1993 Certification of welders and welding supervisors
    AS 2205.7.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Charpy V-notch impact fracture toughness test
    AS 4100-1990 Steel structures
    AS 1858.2-1989 Electrodes and fluxes for submerged-arc welding - Low and intermediate alloy steels
    AS 2865-1995 Safe working in a confined space
    AS 2717.1-1984 Welding - Electrodes - Gas metal arc Ferritic steel electrodes
    AS 1163-1991 Structural steel hollow sections
    AS 1554.1-1985 Structural steel welding (known as the SAA Structural Steel Welding Code) - Welding of steel structures
    AS 2177.1-1994 Non-destructive testing - Radiography of welded butt joints in metal Methods of test
    AS 1966.1-1985 Electric arc welding power sources - Transformer type
    AS 2177.2-1982 Radiography of welded butt joints in metal - Image quality indicators (IQI) and recommendations for their use
    AS 1210-1989 Unfired Pressure Vessels (known as the SAA Unfired Pressure Vessels Code)
    AS 2205.3.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Transverse guided bend test
    AS 1674.1-1997 Safety in welding and allied processes Fire precautions (Reconfirmed 2016)

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS/NZS 1100.501:2002 Technical drawing Structural engineering drawing (Reconfirmed 2014)
    AS/NZS 1554.2:2003 Structural steel welding Stud welding (steel studs to steel)
    AS 2809.2-1999 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods - Tankers for flammable liquids
    AS 1418.1-2002 Cranes, hoists and winches General requirements
    AS 2809.4-2001 Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods - Tankers for toxic and corrosive cargoes
    AS 3533.1-1997 Amusement rides and devices - Design and construction
    AS 2327.1-2003 Composite structures Simply supported beams
    AS/NZS 1554.1:2000 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures
    AS/NZS 3785.4:2002 Underground mining - Shaft equipment Conveyances for vertical shafts
    AS 2550.1-2002 Cranes, hoists and winches - Safe use - General requirements
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