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  • AS 2177.1-1994

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Non-destructive testing - Radiography of welded butt joints in metal - Methods of test

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  01-01-1994

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 2177.1-1994 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING - RADIOGRAPHY OF WELDED BUTT JOINTS IN METAL - METHODS OF TEST
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    7 - FOREWORD
    8 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    8 - 1.1 SCOPE
    8 - 1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    8 - 1.3 DEFINITIONS
    8 - 1.4 TEST METHOD DESIGNATION
    9 - 1.5 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
    9 - 1.6 QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL
    10 - SECTION 2 EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES
    10 - 2.1 GENERAL
    10 - 2.2 X-RAY EQUIPMENT
    10 - 2.3 GAMMA-RAY SOURCES
    10 - 2.4 INTENSIFYING SCREENS
    10 - 2.4.1 General
    11 - 2.4.2 Thickness of intensifying screens
    11 - 2.5 CASSETTES
    11 - 2.6 FILTERS
    11 - 2.7 IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS
    12 - 2.8 FILMS
    12 - 2.9 FILM PROCESSING FACILITIES
    12 - 2.9.1 General
    12 - 2.9.2 Automatic processing
    12 - 2.9.3 Manual processing
    12 - 2.10 VIEWING FACILITIES
    13 - SECTION 3 TEST METHOD REQUIREMENTS
    13 - 3.1 GENERAL
    13 - 3.2 SURFACE PREPARATION
    13 - 3.3 PLACEMENT OF IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS
    14 - 3.4 GEOMETRIC UNSHARPNESS
    14 - 3.5 RADIOGRAPHIC DENSITY
    14 - 3.6 FILM COVERAGE
    14 - 3.6.1 Maximum diagnostic film length
    14 - 3.6.2 Width of film
    18 - 3.6.3 Film overlap
    18 - 3.7 BACK-SCATTER PROTECTION
    18 - 3.8 RADIOGRAPHIC IDENTIFICATION
    18 - 3.8.1 General
    19 - 3.9 RECOMMENDED TUBE VOLTAGES
    19 - 3.10 FILM LOCATION
    19 - 3.10.1 Object-to-film distance
    20 - 3.10.2 Source-to-film distance
    20 - 3.11 MASKING
    20 - 3.12 RADIOGRAPHIC PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS
    20 - 3.12.1 Testing of welds in flat surfaces and longitudinal welds in curved surfaces
    20 - 3.12.2 Testing of circumferential welds in curved surfaces
    22 - 3.13 PROCESSING OF RADIOGRAPHS
    22 - 3.14 VIEWING OF RADIOGRAPHS
    22 - 3.14.1 General
    22 - 3.14.2 Eye adaptation
    23 - 3.14.3 Viewing record
    23 - 3.14.4 Assessment
    23 - 3.15 STORAGE OF RADIOGRAPHS
    24 - SECTION 4 PRESENTATION OF TEST DATA
    24 - 4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
    24 - 4.2 RECORD OF TEST
    24 - 4.3 TEST REPORT
    26 - APPENDIX A - PURCHASING GUIDELINES
    26 - A1 GENERAL
    26 - A2 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER
    28 - APPENDIX B - GUIDANCE FOR THE USE OF THIS STANDARD
    28 - B1 GENERAL
    28 - B2 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY RADIOGRAPHS
    28 - B3 THE EFFECT OF X- RAY TUBE VOLTAGE
    29 - B4 SELECTION OF RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE
    30 - B5 EFFECT OF VARIABLES ON RADIOGRAPHIC CONTRAST
    30 - B6 PRECAUTIONS AGAINST SCATTERED RADIATION
    30 - B6.1 General
    30 - B6.2 Procedures to reduce scatter
    32 - B7 EFFECTS OF SURFACE FINISH
    33 - B8 FILM DENSITY AND SCREENS
    33 - B8.1 Film density
    34 - B8.2 Fluorometallic screens
    35 - B9 VIEWING OF WET RADIOGRAPHS
    35 - B10 FACTORS CONTROLLING SOURCE-TO-FILM DISTANCE
    35 - B10.1 General
    35 - B10.2 Inherent unsharpness
    36 - B10.3 Geometric unsharpness
    37 - B10.4 Total unsharpness
    37 - B10.5 Relationship between types of unsharpness
    38 - B11 IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS (IQIs)
    38 - B11.1 General
    40 - B11.2 Limitations in the use of IQIs
    40 - B11.3 IQI equivalence
    40 - B11.4 IQI and pipe welds
    41 - B11.5 Summary
    43 - APPENDIX C - RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENCE FACTORS

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Sets out methods and specifies requirements for X-ray and gamma-ray testing of welded butt joints in metal products. Included is a comprehensive appendix which provides guidance for the use of the Standard and advice on how to optimize the quality of the radiographic image.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard sets out methods and requirements for X-ray and gamma-ray radiographic testing of welded butt joints in metal products. It does not cover neutron radiography and does not specify the permissible defect levels used for the acceptance/rejection criteria of welds. The individual methods of test and the permissible defect levels should be specified in the relevant product or application Standard.NOTES:1 Advice and recommendations on information to be supplied by the purchaser at the time of enquiry or order are contained in Appendix A.2 Guidance and general information which should assist the users of this Standard is contained in Appendix B.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee MT-007
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published in part as AS B164-1965.
    AS B230 first published 1967.
    AS B237 first published 1967.
    AS B164-1965, AS B230-1967 and AS B237-1967 revised, amalgamated and redesignated AS 2177.1-1978.
    Second edition 1981.
    Third edition 1994. First published in part as AS B164-1965. AS B230 first published 1967. AS B237 first published 1967. AS B164-1965, AS B230-1967 and AS B237-1967 revised, amalgamated and redesignated AS 2177.1-1978. Second edition 1981. Third edition 1994.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 3669-1989 Non-destructive testing - Qualification and registration of personnel - Aerospace
    AS 3998-1992 Non-destructive testing - Qualification and certification of personnel - General engineering
    AS 1929-1981 Non-destructive testing - Glossary of terms
    AS 2177.2-1982 Radiography of welded butt joints in metal - Image quality indicators (IQI) and recommendations for their use
    AS Z5.2-1968 Glossary of metal welding terms and definitions - Terminology of and abbreviations for fusion weld imperfections as revealed by radiography
    AS 2243.4-1998 Safety in laboratories - Ionizing radiations

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1988.1-2006 Welding of ferrous castings - Steel castings
    AS 2717.2-1988 Welding - Electrodes - Gas metal arc Aluminium and aluminium alloy
    AS/NZS 1554.1:1995 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures
    AS 2470-2005 Steel cylinders for compressed gases - Welded three-piece construction with longitudinal joint - 11 kg to 150 kg
    AS/NZS 1554.1:2004 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures
    AS 2470-1995 Steel cylinders for compressed gases - Welded - 11 kg to 150 kg
    AS 2885.2-2002 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding
    AS/NZS 3509:2003 LP Gas fuel vessels for automotive use
    AS 2885.2-1995 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Welding
    AS/NZS 2717.1:1996 Welding - Electrodes - Gas metal arc - Ferritic steel electrodes
    AS/NZS 1554.4:2004 Structural steel welding - Welding of high strength quenched and tempered steels
    AS 1796-2001 Certification of welders and welding supervisors (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 4037-1992 Boilers and pressure vessels - Examination and testing
    AS 1796-1993 Certification of welders and welding supervisors
    AS/NZS 1554.5:1995 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures subject to high levels of fatigue loading
    AS 3978-1991 Non-destructive testing - Visual inspection of metal products and components
    AS 3577-1999 Steel cylinders for compressed gases - Welded - 150 kg to 500 kg
    AS/NZS 1554.6:2012 Structural steel welding Welding stainless steels for structural purposes
    AS 4749-2001 Non-destructive testing - Terminology of and abbReviations for fusion weld imperfections as Revealed by radiography
    AS 3533.3-2003 Amusement rides and devices In-service inspection
    AS/NZS 1553.1:1995 Covered electrodes for welding - Low carbon steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels
    AS 3978-2003 Non-destructive testing - Visual inspection of metal products and components
    AS/NZS 3509:1996 LP gas fuel vessels for automotive use
    AS 4041-1992 Pressure piping
    AS 4037-1999 Pressure equipment - Examination and testing (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 1554.6:1994 Structural steel welding - Welding stainless steels for structural purposes
    AS 1858.1-2003 Electrodes and fluxes for submerged-arc welding Carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels
    AS 2177.2-1982 Radiography of welded butt joints in metal - Image quality indicators (IQI) and recommendations for their use
    AS 1858.2-1989 Electrodes and fluxes for submerged-arc welding - Low and intermediate alloy steels
    AS 2980-2004 Qualification of welders for fusion welding of steels
    AS 3954.2-1991 Motor vehicle controls - Adaptive systems for people with disabilities Hand controls - Product requirements (Reconfirmed 2014)
    AS/NZS 1554.5:2004 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures subject to high levels of fatigue loading
    AS/NZS 1553.2:1999 Covered electrodes for welding - Low and intermediate alloy steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and low and intermediate alloy steels
    AS 1554.1-1991 Structural steel welding (known as the SAA Structural Steel Welding Code) - Welding of steel structures
    AS/NZS 1554.1:2000 Structural steel welding Welding of steel structures
    AS/NZS 3679.2:1996 Structural steel - Welded I sections
    AS 2203.1-1990 Cored electrodes for arc-welding - Ferritic steel electrodes
    AS/NZS 1554.4:1995 Structural steel welding - Welding of high strength quenched and tempered steels
    AS 2470-1998 Steel cylinders for compressed gases - Welded three-piece construction with longitudinal joint - 11 kg to 150 kg
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