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  • ASTM D 5580 : 2021

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    Standard Test Method for Determination of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, p/m-Xylene, o-Xylene, C9 and Heavier Aromatics, and Total Aromatics in Finished Gasoline by Gas Chromatography

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  06-04-2021

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1This test method covers the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, the xylenes, C9 and heavier aromatics, and total aromatics in finished motor gasoline by gas chromatography.

    1.2The aromatic hydrocarbons are separated without interferences from other hydrocarbons in finished gasoline. Nonaromatic hydrocarbons having a boiling point greater than n-dodecane may cause interferences with the determination of the C9 and heavier aromatics. For the C8 aromatics, p-xylene and m-xylene co-elute while ethylbenzene and o-xylene are separated. The C9 and heavier aromatics are determined as a single group.

    1.3This test method covers the following concentration ranges, in liquid volume %, for the preceding aromatics: benzene, 0.1 % to 5 %; toluene, 1 % to 15 %; individual C8 aromatics, 0.5 % to 10 %; total C9 and heavier aromatics, 5 % to 30 %, and total aromatics, 10 % to 80 %.

    1.4Results are reported to the nearest 0.01 % by either mass or by liquid volume.

    1.5This test method includes a relative bias section for U.S. EPA spark-ignition engine fuel regulations reporting for benzene based on Practice D6708 accuracy assessment between Test Method D5580 and Test Method D3606 as a possible Test Method D5580 alternative to Test Method D3606. The Practice D6708 derived correlation equation is only applicable for fuels in the benzene concentration range from 0.0 % to 2.31 % by volume as measured by Test Method D5580. The applicable Test Method D3606 range for benzene is from 0.0 % to 2.38 % by volume as reported by Test Method D3606.

    1.6This test method includes a relative bias section for U.S. EPA spark-ignition engine fuel regulations for total aromatics reporting based on Practice D6708 accuracy assessment between Test Method D5580 and Test Method D5769 as a possible Test Method D5580 alternative to Test Method D5769. The Practice D6708 derived correlation equation(s) is only applicable for fuels in the total aromatic concentration range from 5.4 % to 31.6 % by volume as measured by Test Method D5580 and a distillation temperature T95, at which 95 % of the sample has evaporated, as measured by Test Method D86 is in the range of 149.1 °C to 196.6 °C (300.4 °F to 385.9 °F).

    1.6.1The applicable Test Method D5769 range for total aromatics is from 3.7 % to 29.4 % by volume as reported by Test Method D5769 and the distillation temperature T95, at which 95 % of the sample has evaporated, when tested according to Test Method D86 ranged from 149.1 °C to 196.6 °C (300.4 °F to 385.9 °F).

    1.7This test method includes a relative bias section for spark-ignition engine fuels (gasolines) for benzene reporting based on Practice D6708 accuracy assessment between Test Method D5580 and Test Method D5769 as a possible Test Method D5580 alternative to Test Method D5769. The Practice D6708 derived correlation equation for benzene is applicable in the test method inclusive valid reporting concentration ranges, as determined from Practice D6708 data set and precision working limits of Test Method D5580, from 0.08 % to 2.34 % by volume as measured by Test Method D5580.

    1.8Many of the common alcohols and ethers that are added to gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide emissions and increase octane, do not interfere with the analysis. Ethers such as methyl tert-butylether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butylether (ETBE), tert-amylmethylether (TAME), and diisopropylether (DIPE) have been found to elute from the precolumn with the nonaromatic hydrocarbons to vent. Other oxygenates, including methanol and ethanol elute before benzene and the aromatic hydrocarbons. 1-Methylcyclopentene has also been found to elute from the precolumn to vent and does not interfere with benzene.

    1.9The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard.

    1.9.1Exception—The values given in parentheses are for information only.

    1.10This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.11This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 02
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 4806 : 2020 Standard Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasolines for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
    ASTM D 8011 : 2019 Standard Specification for Natural Gasoline as a Blendstock in Ethanol Fuel Blends or as a Denaturant for Fuel Ethanol
    ASTM D 6708 : 2019 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material
    ASTM D 6733 : 2001 : R2020 Standard Test Method for Determination of Individual Components in Spark Ignition Engine Fuels by 50-Metre Capillary High Resolution Gas Chromatography
    ASTM D 6730 : 2019 Standard Test Method for Determination of Individual Components in Spark Ignition Engine Fuels by 100-Metre Capillary (with Precolumn) High-Resolution Gas Chromatography
    ASTM D 7576 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Determination of Benzene and Total Aromatics in Denatured Fuel Ethanol by Gas Chromatography (Withdrawn 2022)
    ASTM D 7719 : 2018 Standard Specification for High Aromatic Content Unleaded Hydrocarbon Aviation Gasoline
    ASTM D 8275 : 2021 Standard Specification for Gasoline-like Test Fuel for Compression-Ignition Engines

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 4057 : 2019 Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
    ASTM D 4052 : 2018 : REV A Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
    ASTM D 5769 : 2022 Standard Test Method for Determination of Benzene, Toluene, and Total Aromatics in Finished Gasolines by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
    ASTM D 6300 : 2021 Standard Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias Data for Use in Test Methods for Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants
    ASTM D 6300 : 2020 : REV B Standard Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias Data for Use in Test Methods for Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants
    ASTM E 355 : 1996 : R2021 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Gas Chromatography Terms and Relationships
    ASTM D 6708 : 2021 Standard Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material
    ASTM D 4307 : 2017 Standard Practice for Preparation of Liquid Blends for Use as Analytical Standards
    ASTM D 4307 : 2017 : R2021 Standard Practice for Preparation of Liquid Blends for Use as Analytical Standards
    ASTM D 3606 : 2020 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Spark Ignition Fuels by Gas Chromatography
    ASTM D 4057 : 2022 Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
    ASTM D 3606 : 2021 Standard Test Method for Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Spark Ignition Fuels by Gas Chromatography
    ASTM D 5769 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Determination of Benzene, Toluene, and Total Aromatics in Finished Gasolines by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
    ASTM E 355 : 1996 : R2014 Standard Practice for Gas Chromatography Terms and Relationships
    ASTM D 6708 : 2019 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material
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