• ASTM D 8167/D8167M : 2018 : REV A

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    Standard Test Method for In-Place Bulk Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by a Low-Activity Nuclear Method (Shallow Depth)

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  11-15-2018

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This test method describes the procedures for measuring in-place bulk density of soil and soil-aggregate using nuclear equipment with radioactive sources (hereafter referred to simply as “gauges.”)

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1.1This test method describes the procedures for measuring in-place bulk density of soil and soil-aggregate using nuclear equipment with radioactive sources (hereafter referred to simply as “gauges.”) These gauges are distinct from those described in Test Method D6938 insofar as:

    1.1.1These gauges do not contain a system (nuclear or otherwise) for the determination of the water content of the material under measurement.

    1.1.2These gauges have photon yields sufficiently low as to require the inclusion of background radiation effects on the response during normal operation.

    1.1.2.1For the devices described in Test Method D6938, the contribution of gamma rays detected from the naturally-occurring radioisotopes in most soils (hereafter referred to as “background”) compared to the contribution of gamma rays used by the device to measure in-place bulk density is typically small enough to be negligible in terms of their effect on measurement accuracy. However, for these low-activity gauges, the gamma ray yield from the gauge is low enough that the background contribution from most soils compared to the contribution of gamma gays from the gauge is no longer negligible, and changes in this background can adversely affect the accuracy of the bulk density reading.

    1.1.2.2In order to compensate for potentially differing background contribution to low-activity gauge measurements at different test sites, a background reading must be taken in conjunction with gauge measurements obtained at a given test site. This background reading is utilized in the bulk density calculation performed by the gauge with the goal of minimizing these background effects on the density measurement accuracy.

    1.2For limitations see Section 5 on Interferences.

    1.3The bulk density of soil and soil-aggregate is measured by the attenuation of gamma radiation where the source is placed at a known depth up to 200 mm [8 in.] and the detector(s) remains on the surface (some gauges may reverse this orientation).

    1.3.1The bulk density of the test sample in mass per unit volume is calculated by comparing the detected rate of gamma radiation with previously established calibration data.

    1.3.2Neither the dry density nor the water content of the test sample is measured by this device. However, the results of this test can be used with the water content or water mass per unit volume value determined by alternative methods to determine the dry density of the test sample.

    1.4The gauge is calibrated to read the bulk density of soil or soil-aggregate.

    1.5All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

    1.5.1For purposes of comparing, a measured or calculated value(s) with specified limits, the measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the specified limits.

    1.5.2The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.

    1.6Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Reporting test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.

    1.7This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    Note 1:Nuclear density gauge manuals and reference materials, as well as the gauge displays themselves, typically refer to bulk density as “wet density” or “WD.”

    Note 2:The term “bulk density” is used throughout this standard. This term has different definitions in Terminology D653, depending on the context of its use. For this standard, however, “bulk density” refers to, as defined in Terminology D653, “the total mass of partially saturated or saturated soil or rock per unit total volume.”

    1.8This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 2216 : 2005 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 4253 : 2014 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 4253 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 2487 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 6938 : 2008 : REV A Standard Test Method for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 6938 : 2010 Standard Test Method for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 1557 : 2007 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 653 : 2007 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM E 177 : 1990 : REV A : R1996 Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
    ASTM D 2216 : 2010 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 698 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 4254 : 2000 : R2006 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 3740 : 2019 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6938 : 2015 Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 2488 : 1969 : R1975 Recommended Practice for Description Of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2008 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 7382 : 2008 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Maximum Dry Unit Weight and Water Content Range for Effective Compaction of Granular Soils Using a Vibrating Hammer (Withdrawn 2017)
    ASTM D 4643 : 2008 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by Microwave Oven Heating
    ASTM D 6026 : 2013 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 6938 : 2017 : REV A Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 4254 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 698 : 2012 : R2021 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 6938 : 2008 Standard Test Method for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 6026 : 2006 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM E 691 : 2020 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM D 4253 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 4253 : 2016 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 4944 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Calcium Carbide Gas Pressure Tester
    ASTM D 3740 : 1999 : REV C Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4254 : 2014 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 4253 : 2000 : R2006 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM E 691 : 2019 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM D 7759 : 2012 Standard Guide for Nuclear Surface Moisture and Density Gauge Calibration
    ASTM D 7759 : 2012 : REV A Standard Guide for Nuclear Surface Moisture and Density Gauge Calibration
    ASTM D 7013 : 2004 : EDT 1 Standard Guide for Nuclear Surface Moisture and Density Gauge Calibration Facility Setup
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 : R2021 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 1557 : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 4643 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water Content of Soil and Rock by Microwave Oven Heating
    ASTM D 653 : 2020 : EDT 1 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 6026 : 1999 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM E 691 : 2022 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM D 4254 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 3740 : 2011 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 6938 : 2007 : REV A Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM E 691 : 2009 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2010 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 2216 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 4718 : 1987 : R2001 Standard Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 1557 : 2002 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3(2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 6938 : 2006 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2001 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 7013 : 2004 Standard Guide for Nuclear Surface Moisture and Density Gauge Calibration Facility Setup
    ASTM D 2488 : 2000 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 2487 : 2006 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 1557 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3(2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM E 691 : 2021 Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
    ASTM D 6938 : 2017 Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 4944 : 2004 Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Calcium Carbide Gas Pressure Tester
    ASTM D 7382 : 2007 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Maximum Dry Unit Weight and Water Content Range for Effective Compaction of Granular Soils Using a Vibrating Hammer
    ASTM D 3740 : 2012 : REV A Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4718 : 1987 : R1994 : EDT 2 Standard Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles
    ASTM D 3740 : 2003 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 2487 : 2010 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2216 : 1998 Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 2487 : 2000 Standard Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 2487 : 2006 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 6026 : 2021 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits and Data Records in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2216 : 1971 Standard Method of Laboratory Determination Of Moisture Content Of Soil
    ASTM D 4959 : 2007 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil By Direct Heating
    ASTM D 6026 : 2001 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 2487 : 2011 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 6938 : 2017 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 1557 : 2009 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM D 4944 : 1998 Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Calcium Carbide Gas Pressure Tester Method
    ASTM D 4959 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil By Direct Heating
    ASTM D 4254 : 2000 : R2006 Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density
    ASTM D 2487 : 2017 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 4643 : 2000 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Microwave Oven Method
    ASTM D 2488 : 2009 : REV A Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 4959 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Determination of Water Content of Soil By Direct Heating
    ASTM D 2488 : 2017 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)
    ASTM D 6938 : 2007 : REV B Standard Test Method for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 2488 : 2006 Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)
    ASTM D 3740 : 2004 Standard Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in the Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
    ASTM D 4944 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Field Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil by the Calcium Carbide Gas Pressure Tester
    ASTM D 2487 : 1969 : R1975 Standard Test Method for Classification Of Soils For Engineering Purposes
    ASTM D 4718 : 1987 : R2007 Standard Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles
    ASTM D 698 : 2012 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
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