• ASTM D 1557 : 2012 : R2021

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    Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  07-05-2021

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1These test methods cover laboratory compaction methods used to determine the relationship between molding water content and dry unit weight of soils (compaction curve) compacted in a 4- or 6-in. (101.6- or 152.4-mm) diameter mold with a 10.00-lbf. (44.48-N) rammer dropped from a height of 18.00 in. (457.2 mm) producing a compactive effort of 56 000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2700 kN-m/m3).

    Note 1:The equipment and procedures are the same as proposed by the U.S. Corps of Engineers in 1945. The modified effort test (see 3.1.3) is sometimes referred to as the Modified Proctor Compaction Test.

    1.1.1Soils and soil-aggregate mixtures are to be regarded as natural occurring fine- or coarse-grained soils, or composites or mixtures of natural soils, or mixtures of natural and processed soils or aggregates such as gravel or crushed rock. Hereafter referred to as either soil or material.

    1.2These test methods apply only to soils (materials) that have 30 % or less by mass of their particles retained on the 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve and have not been previously compacted in the laboratory; that is, do not reuse compacted soil.

    1.2.1For relationships between unit weights and molding water contents of soils with 30 % or less by weight of material retained on the 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve to unit weights and molding water contents of the fraction passing the 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve, see Practice D4718/D4718M.

    1.3Three alternative methods are provided. The method used shall be as indicated in the specification for the material being tested. If no method is specified, the choice should be based on the material gradation.

    1.3.1Method A:

    1.3.1.1Mold—4-in. (101.6-mm) diameter.

    1.3.1.2Material—Passing No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve.

    1.3.1.3Layers—Five.

    1.3.1.4Blows per layer—25.

    1.3.1.5Usage—May be used if 25 % or less by mass of the material is retained on the No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve. However, if 5 to 25 % by mass of the material is retained on the No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve, Method A can be used but oversize corrections will be required (See 1.4) and there are no advantages to using Method A in this case.

    1.3.1.6Other Use—If this gradation requirement cannot be met, then Methods B or C may be used.

    1.3.2Method B:

    1.3.2.1Mold—4-in. (101.6-mm) diameter.

    1.3.2.2Material—Passing 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) sieve.

    1.3.2.3Layers—Five.

    1.3.2.4Blows per layer—25.

    1.3.2.5Usage—May be used if 25 % or less by mass of the material is retained on the 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) sieve. However, if 5 to 25 % of the material is retained on the 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) sieve, Method B can be used but oversize corrections will be required (See 1.4). In this case, the only advantages to using Method B rather than Method C are that a smaller amount of sample is needed and the smaller mold is easier to use.

    1.3.2.6Other Usage—If this gradation requirement cannot be met, then Method C may be used.

    1.3.3Method C:

    1.3.3.1Mold—6-in. (152.4-mm) diameter.

    1.3.3.2Material—Passing 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve.

    1.3.3.3Layers—Five.

    1.3.3.4Blows per layer—56.

    1.3.3.5Usage—May be used if 30 % or less (see 1.4) by mass of the material is retained on the 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve.

    1.3.4The 6-in. (152.4-mm) diameter mold shall not be used with Method A or B.

    Note 2:Results have been found to vary slightly when a material is tested at the same compactive effort in different size molds, with the smaller mold size typically yielding larger values of unit weight and density (1).2

    1.4If the test specimen contains more than 5 % by mass of oversize fraction (coarse fraction) and the material will not be included in the test, corrections must be made to the unit weight and molding water content of the test specimen or to the appropriate field in-place unit weight (or density) test specimen using Practice D4718/D4718M.

    1.5This test method will generally produce a well-defined maximum dry unit weight for non-free draining soils. If this test method is used for free-draining soils the maximum unit weight may not be well defined, and can be less than obtained using Test Methods D4253.

    1.6All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026, unless superseded by these test methods.

    1.6.1For purposes of comparing measured or calculated value(s) with specified limits, the measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the specified limits.

    1.6.2The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of these test methods to consider significant digits used in analytical methods for engineering design.

    1.7The values in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values stated in SI units are provided for information only, except for units of mass. The units for mass are given in SI units only, g or kg.

    1.7.1It is common practice in the engineering profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and a force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. These test methods have been written using the gravitational system of units when dealing with the inch-pound system. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight). However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or the recording of density in lbm/ft3 shall not be regarded as a nonconformance with this standard.

    1.8This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.9Warning—Mercury has been designated by EPA and many state agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney, and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’s website (http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm) for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury or mercury containing products or both into your state may be prohibited by state law.

    1.10This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Current
    Supersedes

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 5874 : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Determination of the Impact Value (IV) of a Soil
    ASTM D 5080 : 2020 Standard Test Method for Rapid Determination of Percent Compaction
    ASTM D 6758 : 2018 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Measuring Stiffness and Apparent Modulus of Soil and Soil-Aggregate In-Place by Electro-Mechanical Method
    ASTM D 6270 : 2020 Standard Practice for Use of Scrap Tires in Civil Engineering Applications
    ASTM C 1479 : 2016 : R2021 Standard Practice for Installation of Precast Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe Using Standard Installations
    ASTM D 2937 : 2017 : EDT 2 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method
    ASTM D 6780/D6780M : 2019 Standard Test Methods for Water Content and Density of Soil In situ by Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)
    ASTM D 7100 : 2011 : R2020 Standard Test Method for Hydraulic Conductivity Compatibility Testing of Soils with Aqueous Solutions
    ASTM D 7762 : 2018 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Design of Stabilization of Soil and Soil-Like Materials with Self-Cementing Fly Ash
    ASTM D 7380 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Soil Compaction Determination at Shallow Depths Using 5-lb (2.3 kg) Dynamic Cone Penetrometer
    ASTM C 1170/C1170M : 2020 Standard Test Method for Determining Consistency and Density of Roller-Compacted Concrete Using a Vibrating Table
    ASTM D 5321/D5321M : 2021 Standard Test Method for Determining the Shear Strength of Soil-Geosynthetic and Geosynthetic-Geosynthetic Interfaces by Direct Shear
    ASTM E 1266 : 2020 Standard Practice for Processing Mixtures of Lime, Fly Ash, and Heavy Metal Wastes in Structural Fills and Other Construction Applications
    ASTM B 789/B789M : 2016 : R2021 Standard Practice for Installing Corrugated Aluminum Structural Plate Pipe for Culverts and Sewers
    ASTM D 4718/D4718M : 2015 Standard Practice for Correction of Unit Weight and Water Content for Soils Containing Oversize Particles
    ASTM D 7830/D7830M : 2014 Standard Test Method for In-Place Density (Unit Weight) and Water Content of Soil Using an Electromagnetic Soil Density Gauge
    ASTM D 7243 : 2011 : R2020 Standard Guide for Measuring the Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Paper Industry Sludges
    ASTM A 807/A807M : 2019 Standard Practice for Installing Corrugated Steel Structural Plate Pipe for Sewers and Other Applications
    ASTM D 5856 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Porous Material Using a Rigid-Wall, Compaction-Mold Permeameter
    ASTM C 1479M : 2016 : R2021 Standard Practice for Installation of Precast Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe Using Standard Installations (Metric)
    ASTM D 1556/D1556M : 2015 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by Sand-Cone Method
    ASTM D 1452/D1452M : 2016 Standard Practice for Soil Exploration and Sampling by Auger Borings
    ASTM D 5084 : 2016 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM D 6243/D6243M : 2020 Standard Test Method for Determining the Internal and Interface Shear Strength of Geosynthetic Clay Liner by the Direct Shear Method
    ASTM D 6938 : 2017 : REV A : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM E 2278 : 2013 : R2019 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) for Surface Mine Reclamation: Revegetation and Mitigation of Acid Mine Drainage
    ASTM D 1079 : 2020 Standard Terminology Relating to Roofing and Waterproofing
    ASTM D 1883 : 2016 Standard Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils
    ASTM D 4914/D4914M : 2016 Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Rock in Place by the Sand Replacement Method in a Test Pit
    ASTM D 4253 : 2016 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table
    ASTM D 7263 : 2021 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Density and Unit Weight of Soil Specimens
    ASTM D 2167 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Rubber Balloon Method
    ASTM D 8167/D8167M : 2018 : REV A Standard Test Method for In-Place Bulk Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by a Low-Activity Nuclear Method (Shallow Depth)
    ASTM D 6913/D6913M : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 6539 : 2013 Standard Test Method for Measurement of the Permeability of Unsaturated Porous Materials by Flowing Air (Withdrawn 2022)
    ASTM D 5030/D5030M : 2021 Standard Test Methods for Density of In-Place Soil and Rock Materials by the Water Replacement Method in a Test Pit
    ASTM F 1668 : 2016 Standard Guide for Construction Procedures for Buried Plastic Pipe
    ASTM E 2277 : 2014(R2019) Standard Guide for Design and Construction of Coal Ash Structural Fills
    ASTM D 8204 : 2018 Standard Practice for Burial and Retrieval of Samples in a Test Pad to Evaluate Installation Effects on Geosynthetic Clay Liners
    ASTM D 7765 : 2018 : REV A Standard Practice for Use of Foundry Sand in Structural Fill and Embankments
    ASTM E 2243 : 2013 : R2019 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs) for Surface Mine Reclamation: Re-contouring and Highwall Reclamation
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 7698 : 2021 Standard Test Method for In-Place Estimation of Density and Water Content of Soil and Aggregate by Correlation with Complex Impedance Method
    ASTM D 7382 : 2020 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Maximum Dry Unit Weight of Granular Soils Using a Vibrating Hammer

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM E 11 : 2020 Standard Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
    ASTM D 698 : 2000 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))
    ASTM E 11 : 2022 Standard Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
    ASTM D 653 : 2022 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV A Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 653 : 2021 : REV B Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 6026 : 1996 : EDT 1 Standard Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
    ASTM D 4220/D4220M : 2014 Standard Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples (Withdrawn 2023)
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