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  • AS 3600-1994

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Concrete structures

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  24-06-2021

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  01-01-1994

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 3600-1994 CONCRETE STRUCTURES
    4 - PREFACE
    7 - CONTENTS
    12 - SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
    12 - 1.1 SCOPE AND APPLICATION
    12 - 1.1.1 Scope
    12 - 1.1.2 Application
    12 - 1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    13 - 1.3 INTERPRETATIONS AND USE OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS OR METHODS
    13 - 1.3.1 General
    13 - 1.3.2 Interpretations
    13 - 1.3.3 Use of other materials or methods
    13 - 1.3.4 Existing structures
    13 - 1.4 DESIGN
    13 - 1.4.1 Design data
    13 - 1.4.2 Design details
    14 - 1.5 CONSTRUCTION
    14 - 1.6 DEFINITIONS
    14 - 1.6.1 General
    14 - 1.6.2 Administrative definitions
    14 - 1.6.3 Technical definitions
    16 - 1.7 NOTATION
    24 - SECTION 2 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES
    24 - 2.1 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
    24 - 2.1.1 Aim
    24 - 2.1.2 Requirements
    24 - 2.2 DESIGN FOR STABILITY
    24 - 2.3 DESIGN FOR STRENGTH
    24 - 2.4 DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILITY
    24 - 2.4.1 General
    24 - 2.4.2 Deflection limits for beams and slabs
    26 - 2.4.3 Lateral drift
    26 - 2.4.4 Cracking
    26 - 2.4.5 Vibration
    26 - 2.5 DESIGN FOR STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY BY LOAD TESTING OF A PROTOTYPE
    26 - 2.6 DESIGN FOR DURABILITY
    26 - 2.7 DESIGN FOR FIRE RESISTANCE
    26 - 2.8 OTHER DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
    27 - SECTION 3 LOADS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS FOR STABILITY, STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY
    27 - 3.1 LOADS AND OTHER ACTIONS
    27 - 3.1.1 Loads
    27 - 3.1.2 Construction loads
    27 - 3.1.3 Other actions
    27 - 3.2 LOAD COMBINATIONS FRO STABILITY DESIGN
    28 - 3.3 LOAD COMBINATIONS FOR STRENGTH DESIGN
    28 - 3.3.1 Structures other than bridges
    28 - 3.3.2 Bridges
    28 - 3.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS FOR SERVICEABILITY DESIGN
    28 - 3.5 LOAD COMBINATIONS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE DESIGN
    29 - SECTION 4 DESIGN FOR DURABILITY
    29 - 4.1 APPLICATION OF SECTION
    29 - 4.2 DESIGN FOR DURABILITY
    29 - 4.2.1 General
    29 - 4.2.2 Additional requirements
    29 - 4.3 EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION
    29 - 4.3.1 General
    29 - 4.3.2 Concession for exterior exposure of a single surface
    31 - 4.4 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE FOR EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATIONS A1 AND A2
    31 - 4.5 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE FOR EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATIONS B1, B2 AND C
    32 - 4.6 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE FOR EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION U
    32 - 4.7 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR ABRASION
    32 - 4.8 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FREEZING AND THAWING
    33 - 4.9 RESTRICTIONS ON CHEMICAL CONTENT IN CONCRETE
    33 - 4.9.1 Restriction on chloride-ion content for corrosion protection
    33 - 4.9.2 Restriction on sulphate content
    33 - 4.9.3 Restriction on other salts
    33 - 4.10 REQUIREMENTS FOR COVER TO REINFORCING STEEL AND TENDONS
    33 - 4.10.1 General
    33 - 4.10.2 Cover for concrete placement
    33 - 4.10.3 Cover for corrosion protection
    36 - SECTION 5 DESIGN FOR FIRE RESISTANCE
    36 - 5.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
    36 - 5.2 DEFINITIONS
    36 - 5.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
    36 - 5.3.1 General
    36 - 5.3.2 Joints
    37 - 5.3.3 Spalling of beams and columns
    37 - 5.3.4 Methods for determining fire-resistance periods
    37 - 5.4 FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR BEAMS
    37 - 5.4.1 Insulation and integrity for beams
    37 - 5.4.2 Structural adequacy for beams incorporated in roof or floor systems
    37 - 5.4.3 Structural adequacy for beams exposed to fire on all sides
    37 - 5.4.4 Increasing fire-resistance periods of beams by insulating materials
    39 - 5.5 FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR SLABS
    39 - 5.5.1 Insulation for slabs
    39 - 5.5.2 Integrity for slabs
    39 - 5.5.3 Structural adequacy for slabs
    39 - 5.5.4 Increasing fire-resistance periods of slabs by insulating materials
    40 - 5.6 FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR COLUMNS
    40 - 5.6.1 General
    41 - 5.6.2 Insulation and integrity for columns
    41 - 5.6.3 Structural adequacy for columns
    41 - 5.6.4 Increasing fire-resistance periods for columns by insulating materials
    41 - 5.7 FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR WALLS
    41 - 5.7.1 General
    42 - 5.7.2 Insulation for walls
    42 - 5.7.3 Integrity for walls
    42 - 5.7.4 Structural adequacy for walls
    43 - 5.7.5 Increasing fire-resistance periods for walls by insulating materials
    43 - 5.8 FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FROM FIRE TESTS
    43 - 5.8.1 General
    43 - 5.8.2 Loadbearing members tested under load
    44 - 5.8.3 Beams, slabs and columns tested as non-loaded members
    44 - 5.9 FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS BY CALCULATION
    44 - 5.10 INCREASE OF FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS BY USE OF INSULATING MATERIALS
    44 - 5.10.1 Increase of fire-resistance periods by the addition of insulating materials
    46 - 5.10.2 Increase of insulation period of slabs by application of toppings
    47 - SECTION 6 DESIGN PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
    47 - 6.1 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE
    47 - 6.1.1 Strength
    47 - 6.1.2 Modulus of elasticity
    47 - 6.1.3 Density
    47 - 6.1.4 Stress-strain curves
    47 - 6.1.5 Poisson's ratio
    48 - 6.1.6 Coefficient of thermal expansion
    48 - 6.1.7 Shrinkage
    49 - 6.1.8 Creep
    51 - 6.2 PROPERTIES OF REINFORCEMENT
    51 - 6.2.1 Strength
    51 - 6.2.2 Modulus of elasticity
    51 - 6.2.3 Stress-strain curves
    52 - 6.2.4 Coefficient of thermal expansion
    52 - 6.3 PROPERTIES OF TENDONS
    52 - 6.3.1 Strength
    52 - 6.3.2 Modulus of elasticity
    52 - 6.3.3 Stress-strain curves
    53 - 6.3.4 Relaxation of tendons
    54 - 6.4 LOSS OF PRESTRESS IN TENDONS
    54 - 6.4.1 General
    54 - 6.4.2 Immediate loss of prestress
    55 - 6.4.3 Time-dependent losses of prestress
    57 - SECTION 7 METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
    57 - 7.1 GENERAL
    57 - 7.1.1 Methods of analysis
    57 - 7.1.2 Definitions
    59 - 7.2 SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR REINFORCED CONTINUOUS BEAMS AND ONE-WAY SLABS
    59 - 7.2.1 Application
    59 - 7.2.2 Negative design moment
    60 - 7.2.3 Positive design moment
    60 - 7.2.4 Transverse design shear force
    60 - 7.3 SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR REINFORCED TWO-WAY SLABS SUPPORTED ON FOUR SIDES
    60 - 7.3.1 Application
    60 - 7.3.2 Design bending moments
    61 - 7.3.3 Torsional moment at exterior corners
    61 - 7.3.4 Load allocation
    61 - 7.4 SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR REINFORCED TWO-WAY SLAB SYSTEMS HAVING MULTIPLE SPANS
    61 - 7.4.1 Application
    62 - 7.4.2 Total static moment for a span
    62 - 7.4.3 Design moments
    63 - 7.4.4 Transverse distribution of the design bending moment
    63 - 7.4.5 Moment transfer for shear in flat slabs
    63 - 7.4.6 Shear forces in beam-and-slab construction
    63 - 7.4.7 Openings in slabs
    64 - 7.5 IDEALIZED FRAME METHOD FOR STRUCTURES INCORPORATING TWO-WAY SLAB SYSTEMS
    64 - 7.5.1 Application
    64 - 7.5.2 The idealized frame
    64 - 7.5.3 Arrangement of vertical load for buildings
    64 - 7.5.4 Calculation of action effects in the idealized frame
    65 - 7.5.5 Distribution of bending moments between column and middle strips
    65 - 7.5.6 Torsional moments
    65 - 7.5.7 Openings in slabs
    65 - 7.6 LINEAR ELASTIC ANALYSIS
    65 - 7.6.1 Application
    66 - 7.6.2 General
    66 - 7.6.3 Span length
    66 - 7.6.4 Arrangement of vertical loads for buildings
    66 - 7.6.5 Stiffness
    66 - 7.6.6 Deflections
    67 - 7.6.7 Secondary bending moments and shear resulting from prestress
    67 - 7.6.8 Moment redistribution in reinforced concrete members for strength design
    67 - 7.6.9 Moment redistribution in prestressed concrete members for strength design
    67 - 7.6.10 Critical section for negative moments
    67 - 7.6.11 Minimum transverse shear
    67 - 7.7 ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF FRAMES INCORPORATING SECONDARY BENDING MOMENTS
    67 - 7.7.1 Application
    67 - 7.7.2 General
    68 - 7.8 RIGOROUS STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
    68 - 7.8.1 General
    68 - 7.8.2 Material properties
    68 - 7.8.3 Geometric effects
    68 - 7.8.4 Three-dimensional effects
    68 - 7.8.5 Interaction with the foundations
    68 - 7.9 PLASTIC METHODS OF ANALYSIS FOR SLABS
    68 - 7.9.1 General
    68 - 7.9.2 Lower bound method
    68 - 7.9.3 Yield line method
    68 - 7.10 PLASTIC METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF FRAMES
    69 - SECTION 8 DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY
    69 - 8.1 STRENGTH OF BEAMS IN BENDING
    69 - 8.1.1 General
    69 - 8.1.2 Basic principles
    69 - 8.1.3 Design strength in bending
    70 - 8.1.4 Minimum strength requirements
    70 - 8.1.5 Stress in reinforcement and bonded tendons at ultimate strength
    71 - 8.1.6 Stress in tendons not yet bonded
    71 - 8.1.7 Spacing of reinforcement and tendons
    71 - 8.1.8 Detailing of flexural reinforcement
    73 - 8.2 STRENGTH OF BEAMS IN SHEAR
    73 - 8.2.1 Application
    73 - 8.2.2 Design shear strength of a beam
    73 - 8.2.3 Tapered members
    73 - 8.2.4 Maximum transverse shear near a support
    73 - 8.2.5 Requirements for shear reinforcement
    73 - 8.2.6 Shear strength limited by web crushing
    74 - 8.2.7 Shear strength of a beam excluding shear reinforcement
    75 - 8.2.8 Minimum shear reinforcement
    75 - 8.2.9 Shear strength of a beam with minimum reinforcement
    75 - 8.2.10 Contribution to shear strength by the shear reinforcement
    75 - 8.2.11 Suspension reinforcement
    75 - 8.2.12 Detailing of shear reinforcement
    76 - 8.3 STRENGTH OF BEAMS IN TORSION
    76 - 8.3.1 Application
    76 - 8.3.2 Torsion redistribution
    76 - 8.3.3 Torsional strength limited by web crushing
    77 - 8.3.4 Requirements for torsional reinforcement
    77 - 8.3.5 Torsional strength of a beam
    78 - 8.3.6 Longitudinal torsional reinforcement
    78 - 8.3.7 Minimum torsional reinforcement
    78 - 8.3.8 Detailing of torsional reinforcement
    78 - 8.4 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR IN BEAMS
    78 - 8.4.1 Application
    78 - 8.4.2 Design shear force
    79 - 8.4.3 Design shear strength
    79 - 8.4.4 Shear plane surface coefficients
    79 - 8.4.5 Shear plane reinforcement
    80 - 8.4.6 Minimum thickness of structural components
    80 - 8.5 DEFLECTION OF BEAMS
    80 - 8.5.1 General
    80 - 8.5.2 Beam deflection by refined calculation
    80 - 8.5.3 Beam deflection by simplified calculation
    81 - 8.5.4 Deemed to comply span-to-depth ratios for reinforced beams
    81 - 8.6 CRACK CONTROL OF BEAMS
    81 - 8.6.1 Crack control for flexure in reinforced beams
    82 - 8.6.2 Crack control for flexure in prestressed beams
    82 - 8.6.3 Crack control in the side face of beams
    82 - 8.6.4 Crack control at openings and discontinuities
    82 - 8.7 VIBRATION OF BEAMS
    82 - 8.8 T-BEAMS AND L-BEAMS
    82 - 8.8.1 General
    82 - 8.8.2 Effective width of flange for strength and serviceability
    82 - 8.9 SLENDERNESS LIMITS FOR BEAMS
    82 - 8.9.1 General
    83 - 8.9.2 Simply-supported and continuous beams
    83 - 8.9.3 Cantilever beams
    83 - 8.9.4 Reinforcement for slender prestressed beams
    84 - SECTION 9 DESIGN OF SLABS FOR STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY
    84 - 9.1 STRENGTH OF SLABS IN BENDING
    84 - 9.1.1 General
    84 - 9.1.2 Reinforcement and tendon distribution in two-way flat slabs
    84 - 9.1.3 Detailing of tensile reinforcement in slabs
    86 - 9.1.4 Spacing of reinforcement and tendons
    87 - 9.2 STRENGTH OF SLABS IN SHEAR
    87 - 9.2.1 General
    87 - 9.2.2 Application
    87 - 9.2.3 Ultimate shear strength where M* is zero
    89 - 9.2.4 Ultimate shear strength where M* is not zero
    89 - 9.2.5 Minimum area of closed ties
    89 - 9.2.6 Detailing of shear reinforcement
    90 - 9.3 DEFLECTION OF SLABS
    90 - 9.3.1 General
    90 - 9.3.2 Slab deflection by refined calculation
    90 - 9.3.3 Slab deflection by simplified calculation
    91 - 9.3.4 Deemed to comply span-to-depth ratio for reinforced slabs
    92 - 9.4 CRACK CONTROL OF SLABS
    92 - 9.4.1 Crack control for flexure in reinforced slabs
    92 - 9.4.2 Crack control for flexure in prestressed slabs
    93 - 9.4.3 Crack control for shrinkage and temperature effects
    93 - 9.4.4 Crack control in the vicinity of restraints
    93 - 9.4.5 Crack control at openings and discontinuities
    93 - 9.5 VIBRATION OF SLABS
    94 - 9.6 MOMENT RESISTING WIDTH FOR ONE-WAY SLABS SUPPORTING CONCENTRATED LOADS
    94 - 9.7 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR IN COMPOSITE SLABS
    95 - SECTION 10 DESIGN OF COLUMNS FOR STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY
    95 - 10.1 GENERAL
    95 - 10.1.1 Design strength
    95 - 10.1.2 Minimum bending moment
    95 - 10.1.3 Definitions
    95 - 10.2 DESIGN PROCEDURES
    95 - 10.2.1 Design procedure using linear elastic analysis
    95 - 10.2.2 Design procedure, incorporating secondary bending moments
    95 - 10.2.3 Design procedure,using rigorous analysis
    95 - 10.3 DESIGN OF SHORT COLUMNS
    95 - 10.3.1 General
    96 - 10.3.2 Short column with small compressive axial force
    96 - 10.3.3 Short braced column with small bending moments
    96 - 10.4 DESIGN OF SLENDER COLUMNS
    96 - 10.4.1 General
    96 - 10.4.2 Moment magnifier for a braced column
    97 - 10.4.3 Moment magnifier for an unbraced column
    97 - 10.4.4 Buckling load
    97 - 10.5 SLENDERNESS
    97 - 10.5.1 General
    97 - 10.5.2 Radius of gyration
    98 - 10.5.3 Effective length of a column
    98 - 10.5.4 End restraint coefficients for regular rectangular framed structures
    100 - 10.5.5 End restraint coefficients for any framed structure
    100 - 10.5.6 End restraint provided by footings
    100 - 10.6 STRENGTH OF COLUMNS IN COMBINED BENDING AND COMPRESSION
    100 - 10.6.1 Basis of strength calculations
    101 - 10.6.2 Rectangular stress block
    101 - 10.6.3 Calculation of N
    101 - 10.6.4 Design based on each bending moment acting separately
    102 - 10.6.5 Design for biaxial bending and compression
    102 - 10.7 REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR COLUMNS
    102 - 10.7.1 Limitations on longitudinal steel
    102 - 10.7.2 Bundled bars
    102 - 10.7.3 Restraint of longitudinal reinforcement
    103 - 10.7.4 Splicing of longitudinal reinforcement
    104 - 10.8 TRANSMISSION OF AXIAL FORCE THROUGH FLOOR SYSTEMS
    105 - SECTION 11 DESIGN OF WALLS
    105 - 11.1 APPLICATION
    105 - 11.2 DESIGN PROCEDURES
    105 - 11.2.1 General
    105 - 11.2.2 Walls subject only to in-plane vertical forces
    105 - 11.2.3 Walls subject to in-plane vertical and horizontal forces
    105 - 11.2.4 Walls subject principally to horizontal forces perpendicular to the wall
    105 - 11.2.5 Walls subject to in-plane vertical forces and horizontal forces perpendicular to the wall
    105 - 11.2.6 Walls forming part of a framed structure
    105 - 11.3 BRACING OF WALLS
    106 - 11.4 SIMPLIFIED DESIGN METHOD FOR BRACED WALLS SUBJECT TO VERTICAL FORCES ONLY
    106 - 11.4.1 Eccentricity of vertical load
    106 - 11.4.2 Maximum effective height-to-thickness ratio
    106 - 11.4.3 Effective height
    106 - 11.4.4 Design axial strength of a wall
    106 - 11.5 DESIGN OF WALLS FOR IN-PLANE HORIZONTAL FORCES
    106 - 11.5.1 In-plane bendind
    107 - 11.5.2 Critical section for shear
    107 - 11.5.3 Strength in shear
    107 - 11.5.4 Shear strength without shear reinforcement
    107 - 11.5.5 Contribution to shear strength by shear reinforcement
    107 - 11.6 REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR WALLS
    107 - 11.6.1 Minimum reinforcement
    108 - 11.6.2 Horizontal reinforcement for crack control
    108 - 11.6.3 Spacing of reinforcement
    108 - 11.6.4 Restraint of vertical reinforcement
    109 - SECTION 12 DESIGN OF NON-FLEXURAL MEMBERS, END ZONES AND BEARING SURFACES
    109 - 12.1 DESIGN OF NON-FLEXURAL MEMBERS
    109 - 12.1.1 General
    109 - 12.1.2 Design based on strut and tie action
    110 - 12.1.3 Design based on stress analysis
    111 - 12.1.4 Empirical design methods
    111 - 12.2 ANCHORAGE ZONES FOR PRESTRESSING ANCHORAGES
    111 - 12.2.1 Application
    111 - 12.2.2 General
    111 - 12.2.3 Loading cases to be considered
    111 - 12.2.4 Calculation of tensile forces along line of an anchorage force
    111 - 12.2.5 Calculation of tensile forces induced near the loaded face
    112 - 12.2.6 Quantity and distribution of reinforcement
    112 - 12.3 BEARING SURFACES
    113 - SECTION 13 STRESS DEVELOPMENT AND SPLICING OF REINFORCEMENT AND TENDONS
    113 - 13.1 STRESS DEVELOPMENT IN REINFORCEMENT
    113 - 13.1.1 General
    113 - 13.1.2 Development length for bar in tension
    115 - 13.1.3 Development length for a bar in compression
    115 - 13.1.4 Development length of bundled bars
    115 - 13.1.5 Development length of fabric in tension
    115 - 13.1.6 Strength development in reinforcement by an anchorage
    115 - 13.2 SPLICING OF REINFORCEMENT
    115 - 13.2.1 General
    116 - 13.2.2 Welded or mechanical splices
    116 - 13.2.3 Lapped splices for bars in tension
    116 - 13.2.4 Lapped splices for fabric in tension
    116 - 13.2.5 Lapped splices for bars in compression
    116 - 13.2.6 Lapped splices for bundled bars
    116 - 13.3 STRESS DEVELOPMENT IN TENDONS
    116 - 13.3.1 General
    117 - 13.3.2 Development length of pretensioned tendons
    117 - 13.3.3 Stress development in post-tensioned tendons by anchorages
    117 - 13.4 COUPLING OF TENDONS
    117 - 13.4.1 Coupling of tendons
    118 - SECTION 14 JOINTS, EMBEDDED ITEMS, FIXINGS AND CONNECTIONS
    118 - 14.1 DESIGN OF JOINTS
    118 - 14.1.1 Construction joints
    118 - 14.1.2 Movement joints
    118 - 14.2 EMBEDDED ITEMS AND HOLES IN CONCRETE
    118 - 14.2.1 General
    118 - 14.2.2 Limitation on materials
    118 - 14.2.3 Pipes containing liquid, gas or vapour
    118 - 14.2.4 Spacing and cover
    118 - 14.3 REQUIREMENTS FOR FIXINGS
    119 - 14.4 CONNECTIONS
    120 - SECTION 15 PLAIN CONCRETE MEMBERS
    120 - 15.1 APPLICATION
    120 - 15.2 DESIGN
    120 - 15.2.1 Basic principles of strength design
    120 - 15.2.2 Section properties
    120 - 15.3 STRENGTH IN BENDING
    120 - 15.4 STRENGTH IN SHEAR
    120 - 15.4.1 One-way action
    120 - 15.4.2 Two-way action
    120 - 15.5 STRENGTH IN AXIAL COMPRESSION
    121 - 15.6 STRENGTH IN COMBINED BENDING AND COMPRESSION
    122 - SECTION 16 CONCRETE PAVEMENTS, FLOORS AND RESIDENTIAL FOOTINGS
    122 - 16.1 APPLICATION
    122 - 16.2 ADDITIONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR PAVEMENTS AND INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL FLOORS
    122 - 16.2.1 Foundation
    122 - 16.2.2 Thickness of the slab
    122 - 16.2.3 Reinforcement and joints
    122 - 16.3 RESIDENTIAL FLOORS AND FOOTINGS
    122 - SECTION 17 LIQUID RETAINING STRUCTURES
    122 - 17.1 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
    123 - SECTION 18 MARINE STRUCTURES
    123 - 18.1 APPLICATION
    123 - 18.2 ADDITIONAL LOADS AND ACTIONS
    123 - 18.2.1 Environmental loads
    123 - 18.2.2 Live loads
    123 - 18.2.3 Berthing and mooring loads
    123 - 18.2.4 Vibration and movement
    123 - 18.3 ADDITIONAL DURABILITY AND DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
    123 - 18.3.1 Abrasive tidal or wave action
    123 - 18.3.2 Cathodic protection
    123 - 18.3.3 Marine growth
    124 - SECTION 19 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
    124 - 19.1 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE AND GROUT
    124 - 19.1.1 Materials and limitations on constituents
    124 - 19.1.2 Specification and manufacture of concrete
    124 - 19.1.3 Handling, placing and compacting of concrete
    124 - 19.1.4 Finishing of unformed concrete surfaces
    124 - 19.1.5 Curing and protection of concrete
    125 - 19.1.6 Sampling and testing for compliance
    125 - 19.1.7 Rejection of concrete
    126 - 19.1.8 Requirements for grout and grouting
    126 - 19.2 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCING STEEL
    126 - 19.2.1 Materials
    126 - 19.2.2 Fabrication
    126 - 19.2.3 Bending
    127 - 19.2.4 Surface condition
    127 - 19.2.5 Fixing
    127 - 19.2.6 Lightning protection by reinforcement
    128 - 19.3 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR PRE- STRESSING DUCTS, ANCHORAGES AND TENDONS
    128 - 19.3.1 Materials for ducts, anchorages and tendons
    128 - 19.3.2 Construction requirements for ducts
    128 - 19.3.3 Construction requirements for anchorages
    128 - 19.3.4 Construction requirements for tendons
    130 - 19.3.5 Construction requirements for unbonded tendons
    130 - 19.4 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR JOINTS AND EMBEDDED ITEMS
    130 - 19.4.1 Location of construction joints
    130 - 19.4.2 Embedded and other items not shown in the drawings
    130 - 19.5 TOLERANCES FOR STRUCTURES AND MEMBERS
    130 - 19.5.1 General
    130 - 19.5.2 Tolerances for position and size of structures and members
    130 - 19.5.3 Tolerance on position of reinforcement and tendons
    131 - 19.6 FORMWORK
    131 - 19.6.1 General
    131 - 19.6.2 Stripping of forms and removal of formwork supports
    134 - SECTION 20 TESTING AND ASSESSMENT FOR COMPLIANCE OF CONCRETE SPECIFIED BY COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
    134 - 20.1 GENERAL
    134 - 20.2 PRODUCTION ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL
    134 - 20.3 PROJECT ASSESSMENT
    134 - 20.4 PRINCIPLES FOR ASSESSMENT OF CONCRETE SPECIFIED BY STRENGTH
    134 - 20.5 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHOD
    134 - 20.6 DEEMED TO COMPLY PROVISIONS
    135 - SECTION 21 TESTING OF MEMBERS AND STRUCTURES
    135 - 21.1 PROOF TESTING OF BEAMS AND SLABS
    135 - 21.1.1 Application
    135 - 21.1.2 Test procedure
    135 - 21.1.3 Interpretation of flexural test
    135 - 21.1.4 Damage to the structure
    135 - 21.2 PROTOTYPE TESTING
    135 - 21.2.1 Application
    135 - 21.2.2 Construction of the prototype
    135 - 21.2.3 Test procedure
    135 - 21.2.4 Compliance for strength
    136 - 21.3 QUALITY CONTROL TESTING OF MANUFACTURED UNITS
    136 - 21.3.1 Application
    136 - 21.3.2 Testprocedure
    136 - 21.4 TESTING FOR STRENGTH OF HARDENED CONCRETE IN PLACE
    136 - 21.4.1 Application
    136 - 21.4.2 Non-destructive testing
    136 - 21.4.3 Tests on cores taken from the structure
    138 - APPENDIX A - ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO EARTHQUAKE ACTIONS
    138 - A1 SCOPE
    138 - A2 EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS
    138 - A2.1 General
    138 - A2.2 Earthquake design category
    138 - A3 DEFINITIONS
    139 - A4 EARTHQUAKE DESIGN LOAD
    139 - A5 GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
    139 - A6 DOMESTIC STRUCTURES
    139 - A6.1 Design categories H1 and H2
    140 - A6.2 Design category H3
    140 - A7 GENERAL STRUCTURES IN DESIGN CATEGORY A
    140 - A8 GENERAL STRUCTURES IN DESIGN CATEGORY B
    140 - A8.1 General
    140 - A8.2 Regular structures
    140 - A8.3 Irregularstructures
    140 - A9 GENERAL STRUCTURES IN DESIGN CATEGORIES C, D AND E
    140 - A9.1 General
    140 - A9.2 Exterior cladding elements
    140 - A10 BEARING WALL SYSTEMS
    140 - A10.1 Shear walls or braced frames
    141 - A11 BUILDING FRAME SYSTEMS
    141 - A11.1 General
    141 - A11.2 Shear walls
    141 - A11.2.1 General
    141 - A11.2.2 Reinforcement
    141 - A11.2.3 Boundary elements
    141 - A11.3 Reinforced braced frames
    141 - A11.3.1 General
    141 - A11.3.2 Restraint of longitudinal reinforcement
    142 - A12 MOMENT RESISTING FRAME SYSTEMS
    142 - A12.1 General
    142 - A12.2 Ordinary moment resisting frames (OMRF)
    142 - A12.3 Intermediate moment resisting frames (IMRF)
    142 - A12.3.1 General
    142 - A12.3.2 Beams
    143 - A12.3.3 Slabs
    144 - A12.3.4 Columns
    144 - A12.3.5 Column joints
    144 - A12.3.6 Prestressed IMRF's
    144 - A12.3.7 Prestressed beams
    145 - A12.3.8 Prestressed columns
    145 - A12.3.9 Beam-column joints
    145 - A12.4 Special moment resisting frames (SMRF)
    145 - A13 DUAL SYSTEMS
    145 - A13.1 General
    145 - A13.2 IMRF and shear wall
    145 - A13.3 IMRF and braced frame
    145 - A13.4 SMRF and shear wall
    145 - A13.5 SMRF and braced frame
    146 - APPENDIX B - REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    149 - INDEX

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Sets out minimum requirements for the analysis, design and construction of concrete structures and members which contain reinforcing steel, or prestressing tendons or both, and requirements for plain concrete structures and members. The Standard applies to concrete with a characteristic compressive strength in the range of 20 MPa to 50 MPa and a density in the range 1800 kg/m(sup)3(/sup) to 2800 kgm(sup)3(/sup). Although intended mainly for building structures and members, it may also be applied to pedestrian, road and railway bridges unless otherwise required by the relevant authority. It does not apply to mass concrete structures. Design requirements are given for the limit-states of stability, strength, serviceability, durability and for resistance to fire and earthquakes. Rules are also given for assessing the compliance of concrete supplied by a manufacturer and for prototype or proof testing of finished members and structures.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard sets out minimum requirements for the design and construction of concrete structures and members which contain reinforcing steel, or tendons, or both. It also sets out minimum requirements for plain concrete members.NOTE: This Standard will be referenced in the Building Code of Australia by way of BCA Amendment 7 intended for publication in November 1994, thereby superseding the previous edition, AS 3600 - 1988, which will be withdrawn 12 months from the date of publication of this edition. Users are advised that when BCA Amendment 7 is issued, it will not necessarily be gazetted in each State/Territory at the time of printing.ApplicationThis Standard is intended to apply to structures made of concrete -(a) with a characteristic compressive strength at 28 days, f c, in the range of 20 MPa to 50 MPa; and(b) of saturated, surface-dry density in the range of 1800 kg/m3to 2800 kg/m3.This Standard may be applied to concrete bridges. However, the design Standards of the relevant bridge authority, namely the Austroads Bridge Design Code for road bridges and the ANZRC Railway Bridge Design Manual for railway bridges, shall be used where applicable. The general principles of concrete design and construction embodied in this Standard may be applied to concrete other than that specified above, or to concrete structures or members not specifically mentioned herein. This Standard is not intended to apply to the design of mass concrete structures. It is also not intended that the requirements of this Standard should take precedence over those of other Australian Standards.NOTES:1 It is intended that the design of a structure or member to which this Standard applies, be carried out by, or under the supervision of, an engineer as defined in Clause 1.6.2.2 Consideration is being given to extending the application of the Standard to structures in which the characteristic compressive strength of concrete (f'c) is greater than 50 MPa. However, before such an extension could be incorporated, current research data indicates that some requirements of the Standard would need to be more stringent than those presently given and others appropriately modified.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee BD-002
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Draft Revision see DR 99193 CP First published in part as AS CA2-1934.AS A26 first published 1934.MP 13 first published 1957.AS CA2-1934 and AS A26-1934 revised, amalgamated and designated AS CA2-1958.Third edition 1963.MP 13-1957 revised and redesignated AS CA35-1963.Second edition 1973.Fourth edition AS CA2-1973.AS CA2-1973 revised and redesignated AS 1480-1974.AS CA35-1973 revised and redesignated AS 1481-1974.AS CA2-1973 and AS CA35-1973 withdrawn 1976.Second edition AS 1481-1978.Second edition AS 1480-1982.AS 1480-1982 and AS 1481-1978 revised, amalgamated and redesignated AS 3600-1988.AS 1480-1982 and AS 1481-1978 withdrawn 1991.Second edition AS 3600-1994. First published in part as AS CA2-1934. AS A26 first published 1934. MP 13 first published 1957. AS CA2-1934 and AS A26-1934 revised, amalgamated and designated AS CA2-1958. Third edition 1963. MP 13-1957 revised and redesignated AS CA35-1963. Second edition 1973. Fourth edition AS CA2-1973. AS CA2-1973 revised and redesignated AS 1480-1974. AS CA35-1973 revised and redesignated AS 1481-1974. AS CA2-1973 and AS CA35-1973 withdrawn 1976. Second edition AS 1481-1978. Second edition AS 1480-1982. AS 1480-1982 and AS 1481-1978 revised, amalgamated and redesignated AS 3600-1988. AS 1480-1982 and AS 1481-1978 withdrawn 1991. Second edition AS 3600-1994.

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 1012.16-1996 Methods of testing concrete Determination of creep of concrete cylinders in compression (Reconfirmed 2014)
    AS 1314-1972 Prestressing anchorages (metric units) (incorporating Amdt 1)
    AS 1012.1-1993 Methods of testing concrete Sampling of fresh concrete
    AS 3582.2-1991 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland cement Slag - Ground granulated iron blast-furnace
    AS 1313-1989 Steel tendons for prestressed concrete - Cold-worked high-tensile alloy steel bars for prestressed concrete
    AS 3972-1997 Portland and blended cements
    AS 1012.11-1985 Methods of testing concrete Method for the determination of the flexural strength of concrete specimens
    AS 1012.10-1985 Methods of testing concrete Method for the determination of indirect tensile strength of concrete cylinders ('Brazil' or splitting test)
    AS 3000-1986 Electrical installations - Buildings, structures and premises (known as the SAA Wiring Rules) (incorporating Amdt 1)
    AS 1012.13-1992 Methods of testing concrete Determination of the drying shrinkage of concrete for samples prepared in the field or in the laboratory
    AS 1012.3-1983 Methods of testing concrete Methods for the determination of properties related to the consistence of concrete
    AS 1012.17-1997 Methods of testing concrete Determination of the static chord modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of concrete specimens (Reconfirmed 2014)
    AS 1012.20-1992 Methods of testing concrete Determination of chloride and sulfate in hardened concrete and concrete aggregates
    AS 1012.12-1986 Methods of testing concrete Method for the determination of mass per unit volume of hardened concrete
    AS 1311-1987 Steel tendons for prestressed concrete-7-wire stress-relieved steel strand for tendons in prestressed concrete
    AS 1304-1991 Welded wire reinforcing fabric for concrete
    AS 1310-1987 Steel wire for tendons in prestressed concrete
    AS 1170.3-1990 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Snow loads
    AS 1768-1991 Lightning protection
    AS 1303-1991 Steel reinforcing wire for concrete
    AS 1530.4-1990 Methods for fire tests on building materials, components and structures Fire-resistance tests of elements of building construction
    AS 2783-1992 Use of reinforced concrete for small swimming pools
    AS 3610-1995 Formwork for concrete
    AS 1379-1997 Specification and supply of concrete
    AS 3735-1991 Concrete structures for retaining liquids
    AS 1170.4-1993 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Earthquake loads
    AS 3582.1-1998 Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland and blended cement Fly ash
    AS 1012.4-1983 Methods of testing concrete Methods for the determination of air content of freshly mixed concrete
    AS 2758.1-1998 Aggregates and rock for engineering purposes - Concrete aggregates
    AS 1012.9-1999 Methods of testing concrete Determination of the compressive strength of concrete specimens
    AS 1012.14-1991 Methods of testing concrete Method for securing and testing cores from hardened concrete for compressive strength
    AS 1302-1991 Steel reinforcing bars for concrete
    AS 3799-1998 Liquid membrane-forming curing compounds for concrete (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 1170.1-1981 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) Dead and live loads
    AS 4055-1992 Wind loads for housing
    AS 1170.2-1989 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Wind loads
    AS 2870.1-1988 Residential slabs and footings - Construction
    AS 1554.3-1983 Structural steel welding (known as the SAA Structural Steel Welding Code) - Welding of reinforcing steel
    AS 2870.2-1990 Residential slabs and footings - Guide to design by engineering principles

    Standards Referencing This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    AS 4204-1994 Headstones and cemetery monuments
    AS 3516.2-1998 Siting of radiocommunications facilities - Guidelines for fixed, mobile and broadcasting services operating at frequencies above 30 MHz
    AS/NZS 4676:2000 Structural design requirements for utility services poles
    AS/NZS 1905.1:1997 Components for the protection of openings in fire-resistant walls - Fire-resistant doorsets
    AS 3700 SUPP 4-1992 Masonry in buildings (known as the SAA Masonry Code) - Extracts from AS 3700 - Masonry construction requirements (Supplement to AS 3700-1988)
    AS 4065-1992 Concrete poles for overhead lines and street lighting
    AS 2870-1996 Residential slabs and footings - Construction
    AS 4060-1992 Loads on buried vitrified clay pipes (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS 3826-1998 Strengthening existing buildings for earthquake
    AS/NZS 4548.4:1999 Guide to long-life coatings for concrete and masonry Latex - Textured coatings - Aggregate-filled
    AS 3700 SUPP 5-1992 Masonry in buildings (known as the SAA Masonry Code) - Extracts from AS 3700 - Masonry housing requirements (Supplement to AS 3700-1988)
    AS 3958.1-1991 Ceramic tiles - Guide to the installation of ceramic tiles
    AS 2159-1995 Piling - Design and installation
    HB 93 SUPP 1-1997 Commissioning of fire hydrant systems
    AS 3660.1-1995 Protection of buildings from subterranean termites - New buildings
    AS 4425-1996 Above ground burial structures
    AS/NZS 3500.1.2:1998 National plumbing and drainage Water supply - Acceptable solutions
    AS 3780-1994 The storage and handling of corrosive substances
    AS 3610-1995 Formwork for concrete
    AS 3700 SUPP 3-1992 Masonry in buildings (known as the SAA Masonry Code) - Extracts from AS 3700 - Masonry materials requirements (Supplement to AS 3700-1988)
    AS 2876-2000 Concrete kerbs and channels (gutters) - Manually or machine placed
    AS 1170.4-1993 Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code) - Earthquake loads
    AS 3990-1993 Mechanical equipment - Steelwork (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 2424-1991 Plastics building sheets - General installation requirements and design of roofing systems
    AS/NZS 3500.2.2:1996 National plumbing and drainage Sanitary plumbing and drainage - Acceptable solutions
    AS 3700-1998 Masonry structures
    AS 3850.3-1992 Tilt-up concrete and precast concrete elements for use in buildings - Guide to the erection of precast concrete members
    AS 4058-1992 Precast concrete pipes (pressure and non-pressure)
    HB 2.2-1998 Australian Standards for civil engineering students - Structural engineering
    AS 2758.1-1998 Aggregates and rock for engineering purposes - Concrete aggregates
    AS 4326-1995 The storage and handling of oxidizing agents
    AS/NZS 4548.3:1999 Guide to long-life coatings for concrete and masonry Latex - Textured coatings - Non-aggregate (Reconfirmed 2013)
    AS 3500.1-1992 National Plumbing and Drainage Code - Water supply
    AS 1012.17-1997 Methods of testing concrete Determination of the static chord modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of concrete specimens (Reconfirmed 2014)
    AS 1657-1992 Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders - Design, construction and installation
    AS 4100-1998 Steel structures (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 3610 SUPP 2-1996 Formwork for concrete - Commentary (Supplement to AS 3610-1995)
    AS/NZS 4065:2000 Concrete utility services poles
    AS/NZS 4681:2000 The storage and handling of Class 9 (miscellaneous) dangerous goods and articles
    HB 67-1995 Concrete practice on building sites
    AS/NZS 1562.3:1996 Design and installation of sheet roof and wall cladding Plastic
    AS/NZS 2843.1:2000 Timber preservation plant safety code - Plant design
    AS 1085.14-1997 Railway permanent way material - Part 14: Prestressed concrete sleepers
    AS/NZS 1562.2:1999 Design and installation of sheet roof and wall cladding Corrugated fibre-reinforced cement (Reconfirmed 2020)
    AS 1735.9-1994 Lifts, escalators and moving walks Special purpose industrial lifts
    SAA HB 109-1998 Slabs and footings for reinforced masonry houses
    AS/NZS 3500.5:2000 National Plumbing and Drainage - Domestic installations
    AS 3785.5-1991 Underground mining - Shaft equipment - Headframes
    AS 3648-1993 Specification and methods of test for packaged concrete mixes
    AS 1210-1997 Pressure vessels
    HB 93 Supp 1-1997 Commissioning of fire hydrant systems
    AS 1379-1991 The specification and manufacture of concrete
    AS 1379-1997 Specification and supply of concrete
    AS/NZS 3000:2000 Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules)
    AS/NZS 4548.2:1999 Guide to long-life coatings for concrete and masonry Latex finish coatings - High-build, low profile (Reconfirmed 2013)
    AS/NZS 2927:2001 The storage and handling of liquefied chlorine gas
    AS 3785.5-1998 Underground mining - Shaft equipment Headframes
    HB 31-1992 Handbook of building construction tolerances - Extracts from building products and structures Standards
    AS/NZS 2312:1994 Guide to the protection of iron and steel against exterior atmospheric corrosion
    AS 3660.1-2000 Termite management New building work
    AS 3958.2-1992 Ceramic tiles Guide to the selection of a ceramic tiling system
    AS 1418.1-1994 Cranes (including hoists and winches) - General requirements
    AS 1597.2-1996 Precast reinforced concrete box culverts Large culverts (from 1500 mm span and up to and including 4200 mm span and 4200 mm height)
    AS/NZS 4548.1:1999 Guide to long-life coatings for concrete and masonry Wall coatings - Latex extensible (Reconfirmed 2013)
    AS 3850.2-1990 Tilt-up concrete and precast concrete elements for use in buildings - Guide to design, casting and erection of tilt-up panels
    AS 3660.2-2000 Termite management In and around existing buildings and structures - Guidelines
    AS 3727-1993 Guide to residential pavements
    AS 1012.20-1992 Methods of testing concrete Determination of chloride and sulfate in hardened concrete and concrete aggregates
    AS/NZS 4452:1997 The storage and handling of toxic substances
    AS 3660-1993 Protection of buildings from subterranean termites - Prevention, detection and treatment of infestation
    AS 2327.1-1996 Composite structures - Simply supported beams
    AS/NZS 1546.1:1998 On-site domestic wastewater treatment units - Septic tanks
    AS 1012.14-1991 Methods of testing concrete Method for securing and testing cores from hardened concrete for compressive strength
    AS 3972-1997 Portland and blended cements
    HB 109-1998 Slabs and footings for reinforced masonry houses
    AS 2783-1992 Use of reinforced concrete for small swimming pools
    AS 2159 SUPP 1-1996 Piling - Design and installation - Guidelines (Supplement to AS 2159 - 1995) (Reconfirmed 2018)
    AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998 National plumbing and drainage Stormwater drainage - Acceptable solutions
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