• ASTM D 4318 : 2000

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF

    Superseded date:  11-11-2014

    Language(s):  English

    Published date:  06-10-2000

    Publisher:  American Society for Testing and Materials

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    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the liquid limit, plastic limit, and the plasticity index of soils as defined in Section 3 on Terminology.

    1.2 Two methods for preparing test specimens are provided as follows: Wet preparation method, as described in 10.1. Dry preparation method, as described in 10.2. The method to be used shall be specified by the requesting authority. If no method is specified, use the wet preparation method.

    1.2.1 The liquid and plastic limits of many soils that have been allowed to dry before testing may be considerably different from values obtained on non-dried samples. If the liquid and plastic limits of soils are used to correlate or estimate the engineering behavior of soils in their natural moist state, samples should not be permitted to dry before testing unless data on dried samples are specifically desired.

    1.3 Two methods for determining the liquid limit are provided as follows: Method A, Multipoint test as described in Sections 11 and 12. Method B, One-point test as described in Sections 13 and 14. The method to be used shall be specified by the requesting authority. If no method is specified, use Method A.

    1.3.1 The multipoint liquid limit method is generally more precise than the one-point method. It is recommended that the multipoint method be used in cases where test results may be subject to dispute, or where greater precision is required.

    1.3.2 Because the one-point method requires the operator to judge when the test specimen is approximately at its liquid limit, it is particularly not recommended for use by inexperienced operators.

    1.3.3 The correlation on which the calculations of the one-point method are based may not be valid for certain soils, such as organic soils or soils from a marine environment. It is strongly recommended that the liquid limit of these soils be determined by the multipoint method.

    1.4 The plastic limit test is performed on material prepared for the liquid limit test.

    1.5 The liquid limit and plastic limit of soils (along with the shrinkage limit) are often collectively referred to as the Atterberg limits. These limits distinguished the boundaries of the several consistency states of plastic soils.

    1.6 The composition and concentration of soluble salts in a soil affect the values of the liquid and plastic limits as well as the water content values of soils (see Method D2216). Special consideration should therefore be given to soils from a marine environment or other sources where high soluble salt concentrations may be present. The degree to which the salts present in these soils are diluted or concentrated must be given careful consideration.

    1.7 The methods described herein are performed only on that portion of a soil that passes the 425-um (No. 40) sieve. Therefore, the relative contribution of this portion of the soil to the properties of the sample as a whole must be considered when using these tests to evaluate properties of a soil.

    1.8 The values stated in acceptable metric units are to be regarded as the standard, except as noted below. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

    1.8.1 The standard units for the resilience tester covered in Annex A1 are inch-pound, not metric. The metric values given are for information only.

    This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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    Committee D 18
    Document Type Test Method
    Publisher American Society for Testing and Materials
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By

    Standards Referenced By This Book - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    ASTM D 5567 : 1994 : R2018 Standard Test Method for Hydraulic Conductivity Ratio (HCR) Testing of Soil/Geotextile Systems
    ASTM D 7263 : 2009 : R2018 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Density (Unit Weight) of Soil Specimens
    ASTM D 2321 : 2018 Standard Practice for Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers and Other Gravity-Flow Applications
    ASTM D 7664 : 2010 : R2018 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Unsaturated Soils
    ASTM D 6572 : 2013 : EDT 2 Standard Test Methods for Determining Dispersive Characteristics of Clayey Soils by the Crumb Test
    ASTM D 3282 : 2015 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes
    ASTM D 2940/D2940M : 2015 Standard Specification for Graded Aggregate Material For Bases or Subbases for Highways or Airports
    ASTM D 7181 : 2011 Method for Consolidated Drained Triaxial Compression Test for Soils
    ASTM D 2487 : 2017 Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
    ASTM D 242/D242M : 2019 Standard Specification for Mineral Filler for Asphalt Mixtures
    ASTM D 7277 : 2016 Standard Test Method for Performance Testing of Articulating Concrete Block (ACB) Revetment Systems for Hydraulic Stability in Open Channel Flow
    ASTM D 2166/D2166M : 2016 Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil
    ASTM D 4221 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Dispersive Characteristics of Clay Soil by Double Hydrometer
    ASTM D 1073 : 2016 Standard Specification for Fine Aggregate for Asphalt Paving Mixtures
    ASTM D 7928 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Fine-Grained Soils Using the Sedimentation (Hydrometer) Analysis
    ASTM D 2850 : 2015 Standard Test Method for Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Compression Test on Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 5050 : 2008 : R2015 Standard Guide for Commercial Use of Lime Kiln Dusts and Portland Cement Kiln Dusts
    ASTM D 5101 : 2012 : R2017 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Filtration Compatibility of Soil-Geotextile Systems
    ASTM D 6088 : 2006 : R2016 Standard Practice for Installation of Geocomposite Pavement Drains
    ASTM D 6460 : 2012 Standard Test Method for Determination of Rolled Erosion Control Product (RECP) Performance in Protecting Earthen Channels from Stormwater-Induced Erosion
    ASTM D 2216 : 2019 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
    ASTM D 4223/D4223M : 2012 Standard Practice for Preparation of Test Specimens of Asphalt-Stabilized Soils
    ASTM D 3999/D3999M : 2011 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for the Determination of the Modulus and Damping Properties of Soils Using the Cyclic Triaxial Apparatus (Withdrawn 2020)
    ASTM D 3080/D3080M : 2011 Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions (Withdrawn 2020)
    ASTM D 3839 : 2014 Standard Guide for Underground Installation of “Fiberglass” (Glass-Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe
    ASTM D 7830/D7830M : 2014 Standard Test Method for In-Place Density (Unit Weight) and Water Content of Soil Using an Electromagnetic Soil Density Gauge
    ASTM D 4767 : 2011 Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Triaxial Compression Test for Cohesive Soils
    ASTM D 6528 : 2017 Standard Test Method for Consolidated Undrained Direct Simple Shear Testing of Fine Grain Soils
    ASTM D 2435/D2435M : 2011 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils Using Incremental Loading
    ASTM D 7608 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Torsional Ring Shear Test to Measure Drained Fully Softened Shear Strength and Stress Dependent Strength Envelope of Fine-Grained Soils
    ASTM E 2060 : 2006 : R2014 Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion Products for Solidification/Stabilization of Inorganic Wastes
    ASTM D 5084 : 2016 : REV A Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter
    ASTM E 1266 : 2012 Standard Practice for Processing Mixtures of Lime, Fly Ash, and Heavy Metal Wastes in Structural Fills and Other Construction Applications
    ASTM D 4943 : 2018 Standard Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Cohesive Soils by the Water Submersion Method
    ASTM D 4554 : 2012 Standard Test Method for In Situ Determination of Direct Shear Strength of Rock Discontinuities (Withdrawn 2021)
    ASTM D 1883 : 2016 Standard Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils
    ASTM D 6467 : 2013 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for Torsional Ring Shear Test to Determine Drained Residual Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils
    ASTM E 3163 : 2018 Standard Guide for Selection and Application of Analytical Methods and Procedures Used during Sediment Corrective Action
    ASTM D 653 : 2014 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
    ASTM D 4186/D4186M : 2012 : EDT 1 Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Saturated Cohesive Soils Using Controlled-Strain Loading
    ASTM D 1241 : 2015 Standard Specification for Materials for Soil-Aggregate Subbase, Base, and Surface Courses
    ASTM D 8151 : 2019 Standard Practice for Obtaining Rainfall Runoff from Unvegetated Rolled and Hydraulic Erosion Control Products (RECPs and HECPs) for Acute Ecotoxicity Testing
    ASTM D 6913/D6913M : 2017 Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis
    ASTM D 4546 : 2014 : EDT 1 Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Swell or Collapse of Soils
    ASTM D 4647/D4647M : 2013 Standard Test Methods for Identification and Classification of Dispersive Clay Soils by the Pinhole Test
    ASTM D 5106 : 2015 Standard Specification for Steel Slag Aggregates for Bituminous Paving Mixtures
    ASTM D 4215 : 2007 : R2013 Standard Specification for Cold-Mixed, Cold-Laid Bituminous Paving Mixtures
    ASTM F 1962 : 2011 Standard Guide for Use of Maxi-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings (Withdrawn 2020)
    ASTM D 5311/D5311M : 2013 Standard Test Method for Load Controlled Cyclic Triaxial Strength of Soil (Withdrawn 2022)
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