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  • AS 1391-1991

    Superseded A superseded Standard is one, which is fully replaced by another Standard, which is a new edition of the same Standard.
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    Methods for tensile testing of metals

    Available format(s):  Hardcopy, PDF 1 User, PDF 3 Users, PDF 5 Users, PDF 9 Users

    Superseded date:  30-06-2017

    Language(s): 

    Published date:  01-01-1991

    Publisher:  Standards Australia

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    Table of Contents - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    1 - AS 1391-1991 METHODS FOR TENSILE TESTING OF METALS
    4 - PREFACE
    5 - CONTENTS
    6 - 1 SCOPE
    6 - 2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
    6 - 3 DEFINITIONS
    6 - 3.1 Elongation
    6 - 3.2 Extension
    6 - 3.3 Extensometer
    6 - 3.4 Gauge length
    7 - 3.5 Maximum force (Fm )
    7 - 3.6 Percentage reduction of area after fracture
    7 - 3.7 Permanent set stress (Rr)
    7 - 3.8 Proof elongation
    7 - 3.9 Proof stress
    7 - 3.10 Proving test
    7 - 3.11 Strain
    7 - 3.12 Stress
    7 - 3.13 Tensile strength (Rm)
    7 - 3.14 Test piece
    7 - 3.15 Test sample
    7 - 3.16 Test specimen
    7 - 3.17 Yield
    8 - 4 NOTATION
    8 - 5 SELECTION, POSITION AND PREPARATION OF TEST PIECES
    8 - 5.1 General
    8 - 5.2 Selection and positioning of test pieces
    10 - 5.3 Separation of test specimen and test piece from test sample
    10 - 5.4 Straightening test specimens or test pieces
    10 - 5.5 Surface finish of test piece
    10 - 5.6 Removal or retention of surface coatings or layers
    10 - 6 DIMENSIONS OF TEST PIECES
    10 - 6.1 General
    11 - 6.2 Proportional test pieces of circular cross-section
    11 - 6.3 Test pieces of rectangular cross-section
    12 - 6.4 Product section test pieces
    12 - 6.5 Test pieces from tube
    13 - 6.6 Gripped ends
    13 - 7 DETERMINATION OF CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA
    13 - 7.1 Accuracy of measurement
    13 - 7.2 For unmachined bar and uniformly parallel sections
    13 - 7.3 For curved test pieces
    13 - 7.4 For full-section round tubing
    13 - 8 GAUGE LENGTH
    13 - 8.1 Original gauge length
    13 - 8.2 Extensometer gauge length
    13 - 9 METHODS OF GRIPPING
    14 - 10 TEMPERATURE OF TEST PIECE
    14 - 11 ACCURACY OF TESTING EQUIPMENT
    14 - 11.1 General
    14 - 11.2 Force-measuring system
    14 - 11.3 Extensometer
    14 - 12 STRAIN RATE
    14 - 12.1 General
    14 - 12.2 Elastic strain rate
    15 - 12.3 Plastic strain rate
    15 - 13 DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE POSITION
    15 - 13.1 General
    15 - 13.2 For acceptance testing
    16 - 14 DETERMINATION OF YIELD STRESSES (ReH , ReL)
    16 - 14.1 Specified properties
    16 - 14.2 Methods
    16 - 14.3 Alternative values
    16 - 15 DETERMINATION OF PROOF STRESSES (Rp , Rt)
    16 - 15.1 General
    16 - 15.2 Proof stress (non-proportional elongation) (Rp )
    16 - 15.3 Proof stress (total elongation) (Rt)
    16 - 15.4 Alternative values
    16 - 16 DETERMINATION OF PERMANENT SET STRESS (Rr)
    17 - 17 PROVING TEST FOR PERMANENT SET STRESS
    17 - 18 DETERMINATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH (Rmm)
    17 - 19 DETERMINATION OF PERCENTAGE ELONGATION AFTER FRACTURE (A)
    17 - 19.1 General
    17 - 19.2 Use of conversion equation
    17 - 19.3 Fractures outside the central zone
    17 - 20 DETERMINATION OF PERCENTAGE REDUCTION OF AREA (Z)
    17 - 20.1 General
    18 - 21 RECORD OF RESULTS
    18 - 22 TEST REPORT
    19 - APPENDIX A - PURCHASING GUIDELINES
    19 - A1 GENERAL
    19 - A2 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER
    20 - APPENDIX B - NOTES ON THE DETERMINATION OF YIELD STRESSES AND PROOF STRESSES
    20 - B1 OBSERVATIONS ON FORCE-EXTENSION DIAGRAMS
    22 - B2 UPPER AND LOWER YIELD STRESSES
    22 - B3 NON-PROPORTIONAL AND TOTAL ELONGATION PROOF STRESSES
    22 - B4 COLD-STRAIGHTENED TEST PIECES
    22 - B5 SLOPE OF ELASTIC SECTION OF CURVE
    24 - APPENDIX C - NOTES ON STRAIN RATE CONTROL FOR THE DETERMINATION OF YIELD STRESS, PROOF STRESS AND PERMANENT SET STRESS
    24 - C1 GENERAL
    24 - C2 MEASUREMENT OF STRAIN RATE
    24 - C3 MACHINE AND TEST PIECE BEHAVIOUR DURING TEST
    25 - C4 STRAIN RATE CATEGORIES
    26 - C5 METHODS OF CONTROL OF STRAIN RATE
    26 - C5.1 By servo control
    26 - C5.2 By the use of a strain rate meter
    26 - C5.3 By control of grip separation rate
    26 - C6 CALIBRATION OF EQUIPMENT USED TO PERFORM TESTING AT HIGH SUPPLEMENTARY STRAIN RATES
    26 - C6.1 The force measuring system
    26 - C6.2 Extensometer
    27 - C7 DISCONTINUOUS YIELDING
    27 - C8 STORED ENERGY AND ENERGY RELEASE AT YIELD
    28 - APPENDIX D - ERRORS DUE TO THE USE OF SIMPLIFIED EQUATIONS IN THE DETERMINATION OF CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF LONGITUDINAL TUBE
    29 - APPENDIX E - GUIDANCE ON DETERMINATION OF PERCENTAGE ELONGATION AFTER FRACTURE
    29 - E1 MARKING OF GAUGE LENGTHS
    29 - E2 MEASUREMENT
    29 - E3 SURFACE FINISH
    30 - APPENDIX F - GUIDANCE FOR PRODUCT STANDARDS DRAFTING COMMITTEES

    Abstract - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Sets out requirements for test pieces and specifies methods for the uni-axial tensile testing of metals at room temperature to determine tensile strength, yield, proof and permanent set stresses and percentage elongation and reduction of area. It specifies a standard strain rate but allows the use of four supplementary strain rate categories for special test applications.

    Scope - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    This Standard sets out methods by which a test piece of metal is strained in uni-axial tension at room temperature in order to determine one or more of its tensile properties. It defines the properties to be determined and the terms used in describing tests and test pieces. The Standard also specifies the dimensions of standard test pieces and methods for tensile testing a wide range of product forms. This Standard does not cover through thickness tensile tests, tensile tests at elevated temperature (see AS 2291), the determination of uniform elongation (see AS 2346), or the measurement of plastic strain ratio (see AS 2403).NOTES:1 The properties which are to be determined and the criteria for assessment of the results of tests are not included; they should be set out in the relevant product Standard.2 Advice and recommendations on information to be supplied by the purchaser at the time of enquiry and order for the testing to be performed are contained in Appendix A.

    General Product Information - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    Committee MT-006
    Document Type Standard
    Publisher Standards Australia
    Status Superseded
    Superseded By
    Supersedes
    Under Revision

    History - (Show below) - (Hide below)

    First published as AS A23-1928 (being endorsement of BS 18-1910 without amendment).Second edition 1960 (being endorsement of BS 18-1956 subject to Australian amendment).Third edition 1964 (being endorsement of BS 18-1962 subject to Australian amendment).AS A23-1964 revised and redesignated AS 1391-1974.Second edition 1991. First published as AS A23-1928 (being endorsement of BS 18-1910 without amendment). Second edition 1960 (being endorsement of BS 18-1956 subject to Australian amendment). Third edition 1964 (being endorsement of BS 18-1962 subject to Australian amendment). AS A23-1964 revised and redesignated AS 1391-1974. Second edition 1991.

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    AS 1649-1998 Timber - Methods of test for mechanical fasteners and connectors - Basic working loads and characteristic strengths
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    AS 1163-1991 Structural steel hollow sections
    AS 2423-2002 Coated steel wire fencing products for terrestrial, aquatic and general use (Reconfirmed 2021)
    AS 1746-1991 Conductors - Bare overhead - Hard-drawn copper
    AS/NZS 4968.3:2003 Heavy-road vehicles - Mechanical coupling between articulated vehicle combinations Kingpins and associated equipment
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    AS 2280-1991 Ductile iron pressure pipes and fittings
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    AS 2885.1-1997 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum - Design and construction
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    AS 1085.2-2002 Railway track material Fishplates
    AS 5100.6-2004 Bridge design - Steel and composite construction
    AS/NZS 2544:1995 Grey iron pressure fittings
    AS 1442-1992 Carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels - Hot-rolled bars and semifinished products
    AS 1874-2000 Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Ingots and castings (Reconfirmed 2018)
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    AS/NZS 1567:1997 Copper and copper alloys - Wrought rods, bars and sections (Reconfirmed 2021)
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    AS 1830-2002 Grey cast iron
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    AS/NZS 1568:1998 Copper and copper alloys - Forging stock and forgings
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    AS 1443-2004 Carbon and carbon-manganese steel - Cold finished bars
    AS 1085.4-2002 Railway track material Fishbolts and nuts (Reconfirmed 2013)
    AS 4100-1998 Steel structures (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS 1569-1998 Copper and copper alloys - Seamless tubes for heat exchangers (Reconfirmed 2020)
    AS/NZS 1734:1997 Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Flat sheet, coiled sheet and plate (Reconfirmed 2020)
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    AS 1449-1994 Wrought alloy steels - Stainless and heat-resisting steel plate, sheet and strip
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    AS 2205.2.1-1997 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal - Transverse butt tensile test
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    AS/NZS 4291.1:1995 Mechanical properties of fasteners Bolts, screws and studs
    AS 2205.2.1-2003 Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal Transverse butt tensile test
    AS/NZS 1594:1997 Hot-rolled steel flat products
    AS 1085.4-1999 Railway permanent way material - Part 4: Fishbolts and nuts
    AS 2429-2004 Electroplated coatings of rhodium for general engineering applications
    AS/NZS 1595:1998 Cold-rolled, unalloyed, steel sheet and strip (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 3679.1:1996 Structural steel - Hot-rolled bars and sections
    AS 1085.1-2000 Railway permanent way material Steel rails
    AS 1394-2001 Round steel wire for ropes
    AS/NZS 2280:1995 Ductile iron pressure pipes and fittings
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    AS/NZS 3200.2.32:1994 Approval and test specification - Medical electrical equipment Particular requirements for safety - Associated equipment of X-ray equipment
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    AS 1548-1995 Steel plates for pressure equipment
    AS/NZS 1873.4:2003 Powder-actuated (PA) hand-held fastening tools - Fasteners
    AS 2469-2005 Steel cylinders for compressed gases - Welded two-piece construction - 0.1 kg to 150 kg
    AS 1566-1997 Copper and copper alloys - Rolled flat products (Reconfirmed 2018)
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    AS/NZS 3678:1996 Structural steel - Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs
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    AS/NZS 3679.2:1996 Structural steel - Welded I sections
    AS/NZS 2041:1998 Buried corrugated metal structures
    AS/NZS 1866:1997 Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Extruded rod, bar, solid and hollow shapes (Reconfirmed 2020)
    AS 1397-2001 Steel sheet and strip - Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated
    AS/NZS 2280:1999 Ductile iron pressure pipes and fittings
    AS 1222.1-1992 Steel conductors and stays - Bare overhead Galvanized (SC/GZ)
    AS/NZS 1665:2004 Welding of aluminium structures (Reconfirmed 2016)
    AS/NZS 1664.1:1997 Aluminium structures Limit state design (Reconfirmed 2020)
    AS 2470-1998 Steel cylinders for compressed gases - Welded three-piece construction with longitudinal joint - 11 kg to 150 kg
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